is a disease characterized by inflammation of the inner mucosa of the stomach wall. Violated the process of digestion of food, which is accompanied by rapid fatigue and reduced efficiency of the person. The general condition of the organism worsens.
There are two forms of gastritis: chronic and acute. Chronic gastritis is characterized by the fact that the mucous membrane of the stomach is either inflamed, or subjected to dystrophic changes.
Gastritis is one of the most widespread gastrointestinal diseases (gastrointestinal tract).
This disease affects about half of the world’s population. In accordance with this, the problem of treating gastritis is relevant for everyone. Gastritis has two forms: acute gastritis and chronic. Acute gastritis occurs for the first time. Its current is turbulent. Chronic gastritis is characterized by frequent relapses.
Acute gastritis can occur for many reasons.
Acute gastritis is an acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach itself, as well as the duodenum (the initial section of the small intestine). Chemical, bacterial, thermal and mechanical factors can provoke acute gastritis. The scheme of the development of the disease is not very difficult to understand. Damaged glands and superficial cells of the mucous membrane of the organ lead to the appearance and development of inflammation. Provoke acute gastritis can the disease of the pancreas, gall bladder, liver. Abnormal diet, metabolic disorders, food allergies to certain foods and the effects of certain medicines can also cause acute pancreatitis.
Symptoms of acute gastritis are revealed in the patient very quickly after the moment of influence of the causative factor.
Relatively fast. Between four and eight hours passes between the impact on the body of the factor that is the cause of the disease and the appearance of its first symptoms. The latter include a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and weakness, as well as diarrhea. Symptoms of acute gastritis are, in addition to the above, the pallor of the skin, a grayish-white coating on the tongue, dry mouth or the directly opposite phenomenon – drooling.
Chronic gastritis is a common disease.
A variety of medical studies suggest that about half of the world’s population suffers from this disease. If we consider the percentage of chronic gastritis in the structure of diseases of the digestive system, then it is 35%. Chronic gastritis is caused by inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa. The cause of the development of chronic gastritis can become diseases of the liver and gall bladder, as well as of the pancreas, which cause disruption of the production of hydrochloric acid. Manifestations of acute gastritis are pain sensations in the epigastric region, intestinal and gastric disorders. Also very often, people who have this disease, noted irritability, lower blood pressure, general weakness of the body.
Stress is one of the predisposing factors in the development of chronic gastritis.
Stress brings down the natural, biologically-driven rhythm of life. This can be a lack of full sleep or work at night or any other reason. Other factors include improper nutritional conditions, such as eating “on dry”, “on the go”, etc .; smoking; alcohol abuse; Infection with bacteria Helicobacter pylori and some others.
Chronic gastritis B – the main form of gastritis.
It occurs in 70% of the total number of chronic gastritis diseases. Chronic gastritis is caused in a special microbe. It is a microbe Helicobacter pylori. With this form of gastritis, the secretory function of the stomach is greatly reduced (down to insufficiency). Quite often occurs chronic gastritis A.This type of disease accounts for approximately 16% of all cases of chronic gastritis. At the beginning of the disease, patients do not have any complaints, as the stomach continues to produce gastric juice. Complaints and accordingly the need for treatment of this type of gastritis appear after the secretion of gastric juice is significantly reduced. This is due to the development of the inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. Other forms of chronic gastritis are much less common.
Helicobacter pylori is a common occurrence.
And it is pretty unhealthy. The fact is that its cause is a bacterium that has entered the stomach, which multiplies extensively. The result of her activity is damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach. The production of gastric juice changes – there is erosion. All this is quite capable of leading to a stomach ulcer.
Gastritis type A is a chronic autoimmune gastritis.
This disease is largely associated with a violation of immune processes in the human body. Often gastritis type A has a hereditary nature. There is an autoimmune gastritis somewhat less often than other types of gastritis. According to the estimates of different authors, type A gastritis ranks from 1% to 18% in the structure of all chronic gastritis.
The causes of gastritis type A are not fully understood.
The scheme of the development of this disease, as the researchers believe involves damage to the gastric mucosa, after which the mechanism of autoimmune processes that is hereditary comes into action. Gastritis type A is accompanied by a deficiency in the body’s immune system, which is associated with inadequate production of immunoglobulin A. Autoimmune gastritis is accompanied by the formation of antibodies to the cells of the stomach itself. It is about the lining cells (they produce hydrochloric acid). Antibodies to gastromucoprotein are also produced – this is the main component of the protective barrier of the stomach. The result of all of the above is the atrophy of the mucous membrane of this organ. The bottom and body of the stomach are frequent in this body, in which the autoimmune process begins. It is in these parts of the stomach that the parietal – lining – cells are concentrated. Gastromukoprotein, to which antibodies are formed during gastritis of type A, is also responsible for absorption in the stomach of vitamin B12. As a result of the disease, absorption of this vitamin in the body is significantly reduced, which leads to the development of B12-deficiency anemia.
Pain is the main symptom of autoimmune gastritis.
Far from it. With gastritis type A, pain in the epigastric region (characteristic of gastritis) is quite rare. Most often there is a heaviness in the stomach, its overflow after each meal, and also belching with air. The latter eventually acquires a bitter taste. Heartburn with autoimmune gastritis is also a common phenomenon. With the development of the disease, there is a decrease and loss of appetite. Weight loss is observed in patients with severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. On the part of the intestine in patients with autoimmune gastritis, there are frequent gurgling and rumbling in the abdomen, constipation and diarrhea. Over time, type A gastritis gives many unpleasant consequences. These include visual impairment, which is due to a deficiency in the body of vitamin A, as well as fragility of nails, hair loss and bleeding gums.
The diagnosis of gastritis type A is made after many examinations.
These include gastroscopic examination of the stomach, organ fluoroscopy, histological examination of the stomach and its probing. Intragastric pH-metry is used, as well as mandatory immunological examination of the patient’s blood.
Hypertrophic gastritis is a disease associated with the growth of the gastric mucosa.
Hypertrophic gastritis leads to the formation in this body of huge folds, which can even be compared with the brain gyrus.Giant folds of the stomach are covered with abundant viscous mucus, since there is a large number of cells forming the mucus in the mucous membrane of the stomach. When microscopic examination of the mucous membrane of the body reveals a number of pits that are filled with mucus. With hypertrophic gastritis, the gastric glands are transformed into cystic cavities. Complaints of patients with this disease are mainly directed to pain in the stomach. And the pain can be very strong and arise after each meal. In patients, there is a decrease in appetite and, as a result, weight loss. A frequent phenomenon with hypertrophic gastritis is swelling of the extremities. The latter are due to the fact that the body loses a large amount of protein in this disease. Hypertrophic gastritis is often accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting, which can have an admixture of blood. With the help of X-ray methods, as well as fibrogastroscopy, the correct diagnosis is established.
Granulomatous gastritis can not develop independently.
This disease can accompany Crohn’s disease, tuberculosis, fungal infections, etc. Also, granulomatous gastritis can be triggered by ingestion of a foreign body. The clinic of this gastritis practically coincides with other chronic gastritis. To make the appropriate diagnosis, it is necessary to examine the parts of the mucous membrane of the organ under the microscope. The main treatment for granulomatous gastritis is the treatment of the underlying disease, which is accompanied by gastritis.
Eosinophilic gastritis is a rare disease.
Eosinophilic gastritis can develop in patients with bronchial asthma, allergic diseases. A characteristic feature of this disease is the accumulation of eosinophils in the mucous membrane of the stomach and in its other layers. Eosinophils are a kind of white blood cells. Eosinophilic gastritis does not lead to a decrease in the secretory activity of the stomach. The diagnosis is made on the basis of a histological examination of the particles of the mucous membrane of this organ.
Lymphocytic gastritis is a disease associated with the accumulation of lymphocytes in the gastric mucosa.
This disease can develop if there are abnormalities in the human immune system. Lymphocytic gastritis may in some cases be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The disease is characterized by swelling of the folds of the mucous membrane of the stomach, erosions and nodules can form on the folds. This disease often spreads to the entire mucosa of the body. Sometimes only the body of the stomach is captured. Histological and fibroscopic findings are often sufficient to diagnose lymphocytic gastritis.
Reactive gastritis develops as a result of adverse effects on the body.
This effect is on the gastric mucosa. It can be getting into this body of bile, duodenal ulcer, as well as the effect on the stomach of certain medicines.
Polyposis gastritis is a kind of chronic gastritis.
Polyps are an overgrowth of the mucous membrane of this organ, bleeding can begin from their surface. For polyposis gastritis is characterized by secretory insufficiency. Diagnosis of polyposis gastritis can be made on the basis of fibrogastroscopic and X-ray studies; treatment of this disease is carried out surgically – the patient is made fibrogastroscopy. Thanks to special endoscopic techniques and polyps are removed.
Chronic gastritis does not have a clear symptomatology.
Specific symptoms of this disease do not really exist, therefore the clinical picture of chronic gastritis can be different for different people. However, mainly symptoms of chronic gastritis are pain in the epigastric region, as well as eructation, stool disorder, vomiting and nausea (i.e., dyspepsia). And the fact that it predominates in the patient (pain or dyspepsia) depends on the most chronic gastritis.If we are talking about this form of this disease, when there is a secretory insufficiency, a characteristic sign of chronic gastritis is dyspepsia, both as a gastric (nausea, vomiting, belching) and intestinal (stool, rumbling in the abdomen, etc.). If secretion of gastric juice is preserved (or even increased), the characteristic sign of the disease is pain in the epigastric region, which can also be localized in the right hypochondrium. The pain itself is more pronounced after eating (much less often on an empty stomach or not at all dependent on eating) – when stretching the walls of the stomach, it tends to increase. The pain also depends on the production of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. If its output is increased, the pain is quite strong, but if it is lowered on the contrary, the pain is much weaker than in the first case.
Alternative medicine for the treatment of gastritis recommends the use of aloe juice.
The juice of this medicinal plant is drunk 1-2 teaspoons 2 times a day for half an hour before meals. The course is designed for 1-2 months.