Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller
(10.11.1759 – 9.05.1805) – an outstanding German poet, playwright, historian, author of a number of theoretical works on art, one of the creators of modern literature in Germany. His pen belongs to such famous works as the tragedy “The Robbers” (1781-82), “Wallenstein” (1800), dramas “Cunning and Love” (1784), “Don Carlos”, “William Tell” (1804), romantic tragedy ” The Maid of Orleans “(1801).
Schiller’s life was closely connected with the army.
Friedrich Christophe’s father was Johann Kaspar Schiller, a paramedic, an officer who was in the service of the Württemberg Duke; after graduating in 1772, the Latin school in Ludwigsburg, Schiller was enrolled in a military school (where the writer studied medicine and jurisprudence), later received the status of an academy; at the end of the last in 1780, Schiller was appointed to Stuttgart as a regimental doctor.
Schiller was forbidden to write.
After leaving the regiment in Mannheim for the presentation of his first tragedy “The Robbers”, Schiller was given a ban on writing anything other than essays on a medical topic. Such an attack against his literary work made Schiller prefer the duke’s possessions in which he was at that time, other German lands.
Schiller wrote plays specifically for theaters.
In the summer of 1783 the quartermaster of the Mannheim Theater signed a contract with Schiller, according to which the playwright should write plays specially for staging on the Mannheim scene. The drama “Deceit and Love” and “The Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa”, begun before the conclusion of this theatrical treaty, were just put in Mannheim. After them, the contract with Schiller, despite the deafening success of “Cunning and Love,” was not resumed.
Schiller was engaged in history.
In 1787, Schiller moved to Weimar, and in 1788 took up the editorial board of the “History of remarkable revolts and conspiracies,” a series of books devoted to various historical perturbations in society. As part of his work, Schiller revealed the theme of the self-determination of the Netherlands, who were freed from Spanish domination. In 1793, the writer published the History of the Thirty Years’ War. In addition, historical themes are full of all his diverse drama. Schiller writes about Joan of Arc, and about Maria Stewart, does not ignore the attention of the legendary Swiss hero Wilhelm Tell and many others.
Schiller was familiar with Goethe.
Acquaintance of two classics of German literature occurred in 1788, and already in 1789 with the help of Goethe Schiller received the post of professor of history at the University of Jena. Subsequently, the writers corresponded with each other literary and aesthetic character, co-authors in the epigram cycle of “Xenia”. The friendship with Goethe inspired Schiller to create such famous lyrical works as “Glove”, “Polykratov Ring”, “Ivikov Cranes”.
Schiller enthusiastically met the Great French Revolution.
Despite the author’s approval of the fall of the feudal system, Schiller reacted to what had happened in France with some degree of apprehension: he did not like the execution of Louis XVI, and the Jacobin dictatorship raising his head.
Schiller was helped by the money of the Crown Prince.
Despite the professorship at the University of Jena, Schiller’s incomes were extremely small, the money was not enough even for the most necessary. Crown Prince Fre. von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg decided to help the poet and three years (from 1791 to 1794) paid him a scholarship. Since 1799, it has been doubled.
During his life, Schiller fell in love many times.
In his youth, the ideals of the poet were Laura Petrarch and Francis von Hohengei, the metress of the Wirthberg Duke, later the wife of Charles and the new Duchess. Seventeen-year-old Schiller was completely delighted with the charming and noble Francis, in it he saw the concentration of all virtues and it was he who brought out in his famous drama “Deceit and Love” under the name of Lady Milford.Later Schiller began to feel feelings for more real women, with whom he could easily bind himself by marriage, but for a number of reasons he did not. In the estate of Henrietta Wolzogen, where the poet sheltered from the persecution of the duke, he fell in love with the daughter of the woman who sheltered him – Charlotte, but neither the girl herself nor her mother showed enough fervor to Schiller: the girl loved the other, and the mother did not like the poet’s shaky position in society . One of the main roles in the life and literary activities of Schiller was destined to play another Charlotte – a married lady named Marshal von Ostgeym, for her husband Kalb. However, the love of Charlotte did not prevent Schiller from getting carried away by other women, such as actresses playing in plays staged in his plays, or simply beautiful girls who love literature and art. At one of the last – Margarita Schwann, Schiller almost got married. He stopped the poet saying that he would like to marry Charlotte, and Margarita’s father did not give his consent to the marriage. Relations with Charlotte ended quite prosaically – the poet chilled to a woman who did not dare to divorce her husband for his sake. Schiller’s wife was Charlotte von Lengfeld, whom the poet met in Mannheim in 1784, but really drew attention to her only three years later. Interestingly, the love for Charlotte for a while bordered in the soul of Schiller, along with the love for her older sister Caroline, who for the happiness of her sister and beloved Friedrich married an unloved person and left their path. The wedding of Schiller took place on February 20, 1790.
In the mature works of Schiller, the conflict between the enlightenment ideal and reality was reflected.
The most significant in this respect is the poem “Ideal and Life” of 1795, as well as the late tragedies of the German playwright, in which the problem of a free world order is posed against the background of a terrifying social life.
Schiller was a nobleman.
The nobility of Schiller was granted by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation Francis II in 1802.
Schiller had poor health.
Almost throughout his life, the poet was often sick. Toward the end of his life, Schiller developed tuberculosis. The writer died on May 9, 1805 in Weimar.
Creativity Schiller highly appreciated in Russia.
Schiller’s classical translations in Russian literature are translations of Zhukovsky. In addition, Schiller translated Derzhavin, Pushkin, Lermontov, Tyutchev and Fet. Highly appreciated the work of the German playwright Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Dostoevsky.