Influenza (French grippe), influenza, high-acute acute viral respiratory disease characterized by a short incubation period (1-2 days) and rapid cyclic flow (3-5 days). It affects all age groups living in different geographical conditions. The causative agent of influenza (opened in 1933 by English virologists William Smith, F. Andrews, P. Leidlow) is a medium-sized virus (80-120 mm in diameter); belongs to the group of myxoviruses. There are three antigenic variants of the virus: serotypes A and B, which cause epidemics that recur at 2-3 g intervals (for serotype A) and 3-4 g (for serotype B), and type C, which causes sporadic (single ) diseases of preschool children. The peculiarity of type A and B viruses is the continuous variability of their antigenic properties, accompanied by the periodic emergence of new subtypes that do not cause cross-immune immunity in the patients.
The only source of infection is a sick person, less often a healthy virus carrier. Infection occurs by airborne droplets – when coughing, sneezing a patient, when talking with him. Moderate in intensity of inflammation of the mucous membranes of nasal passages, pharynx, throat, larynx and bronchi accompanied by a pronounced picture of the total poisoning of the body with endotoxin of the influenza virus. Intoxication causes a sharp decline in strength, tenderness of the muscles, general weakness, headache, increased irritability. There is a chill, the temperature rises; discharge from the mucous membranes of nasal passages and throat, conjunctivitis, dry cough, sneezing, reddening of throat and tonsils, etc .; sometimes smell and hearing are disturbed. Complications of bacterial origin often develop (inflammation of the middle ear, tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis); as the consequences of general intoxication are often dangerous lesions of the cardiovascular system.
No matter how information about the disease occurs, many misconceptions about the flu still remain in the minds of some of our population and seriously affect the possibility of prevention and early recovery.
For people with strong immunity, the flu is not terrible.
Indeed, there are people who do not get the flu. This is due to the so-called genetic stability. It is present at the person from birth. But immediately it must be said that such stability is very rare. Most often there is a risk of contracting the flu, and here the immune status plays no role. A person can practically not get sick or catch cold, but this is not a guarantee that the next flu epidemic will bypass him. Therefore, doctors recommend the prevention of influenza, without exception.
Influenza is a common and common disease, which should not be feared.
Frivolous attitude towards this disease is a feature of the Russian mentality. And no one wants to think that the flu is not as terrible as its consequences: from pneumonia to death.
The flu can be moved on legs, it is not necessary to stay a week at home.
People who adhere to this rule not only risk their lives and health, but also can infect others. Carrying the flu on their feet, such “drummers of capitalist labor” risk getting complications, which will take much longer to treat than from the flu.
To treat the flu is absolutely useless – all the same the disease will pass by itself.
We all know the folk saying: “Without treatment, the flu lasts a week, with treatment – seven days.” This ironic statement has its share of truth. Often, treat the flu, do not treat it, the result is still the same. But not if the therapy is started on time. Judge for yourself: we start taking medication when it becomes very bad when the temperature lasts for several days, and because of weakness it is impossible to tear off the head from the pillow.As for the common cold, many people start to treat it only after the nose stops breathing at all. This is completely wrong. It is especially important to prevent the development of influenza. The acute phase of this disease is observed in the first day after infection. Only minor symptoms worry people. That’s when we need to start treatment. In this case, you can interrupt the disease, and not letting it develop, and all the troubles will end in a few days. Not only will such timeliness shorten the timing of the illness, it will also reduce the likelihood of complications.
The flu can be cured in three days.
Such a statement is naive. Even a drug that can cure a flu has not yet been invented. True, it is known that the influenza virus dies in an alkaline environment, so it is useful to do inhalations with baking soda (1 tsp for a glass of boiled water) or to drink alkaline mineral waters such as Borjomi. You can also use a very effective folk remedy – it is used, feeling an impending malaise. Take 1.5 liters of boiled water, add 1 tablespoon. a large salt, juice of 1 lemon and 1 gr of ascorbic acid. Dissolve, stir and drink for 1.5 hours.
You need to drink antibiotics with the flu.
This is fundamentally not true. Because antibiotics are mainly prescribed for bacterial infections, which has absolutely nothing to do with influenza. Antibiotics are prescribed by a doctor at any foci of chronic infection in your body: bronchitis, sinusitis, pyelonephritis, etc. The only drugs that are needed for the flu are antipyretic, reducing pain syndrome and expectorant.
Vitamins will save from the flu.
No one argues, vitamins are wonderful, but they will not save the flu. The optimal solution will be complex therapy, which includes both antiviral drugs and vitamins.
The temperature of the flu should be very high.
Actually, with mild forms of the disease, the mercury column behaves calmly. The main symptom is the intoxication of the body, which causes the whole body, the head and muscle pain.
If the temperature is raised, then it must be immediately knocked down.
Such a setup is known to very many. Only some of us keep ourselves from the desire to take a shock dose of antipyretic. And they act, by the way, absolutely right. After all, fever is nothing but a defensive reaction of the body. It is aimed at killing the causative agents of the disease, creating unbearable conditions for their existence. Indeed, high fever contributes to the death of influenza viruses and facilitates the course of infection. Another thing is that some fever is very poorly tolerated. There is a strong weakness, palpitation, muscle pains, aches in the joints. In this case, antipyretic take necessary, but to bring down the temperature below 37.5 still does not follow. And one more detail: too quickly to lower temperature too it is not necessary, in this case the state of health becomes even worse, than was before reception of an antipyretic.
Vaccination will protect against the flu.
Many people are sure that it is impossible to get influenza after vaccination. In fact, this is not the case, the risk of infection remains, but it becomes significantly less. In this case, a certain role is played by the type of vaccine, each of which gives its percentage guarantee of safety. But on average it is not less than 80-90%.
People with cardiovascular diseases are not eligible for vaccination.
There is an opinion that people with diseases of the cardiovascular system are very poorly tolerated by vaccination. But it can not lead to any complications. Moreover, people with heart problems should be vaccinated. The fact that the flu itself gives complications, which most often develop in those who have problems with the heart and blood vessels.
The longer you are in the open air, the less you risk getting the flu.
The statement is not entirely correct, because on the street we meet with a lot of people who are likely to get flu. Another thing is that in the fresh air the risk of infection is relatively low. It increases hundreds of times in enclosed premises, where a lot of people gather.
If I become tempered, I will not get the flu.
No one argues that tempering, having healthy mucous membranes and a nasopharynx is good. But one hundred percent guarantee that this will protect against the flu, no. The main method of prevention is not dousing with cold water, but vaccination.
Once you have had it, you can get long-term immunity.
It has been established that most adults in the blood have influenza antibodies due to a past infection. However, the influenza virus is constantly changing, so the previously acquired immunity is untenable against the virus that has changed its properties. To reliably solve this problem, the World Health Organization has launched a special epidemiological surveillance program for influenza since 1947. Since then, modern vaccines are created according to the principle: in spring, the three most aggressive and widespread varieties of the virus are allocated in Asia (two types A and one B), and by the fall, a correct and timely vaccine is produced. With the use of such a drug, the protection reaches 98 percent.