Almost every one of us has some knowledge about first aid, no matter where they come from. However, for the most part this set is just a mess of rumors and stereotypes, the use of such disparate knowledge in practice is not only meaningless, but also simply dangerous.
For example, everyone knows that a tire should be applied to a fracture. For most, it looks like two or three sticks or fences from the fence. In practice, for some reason, the victim is not happy with the fact that his broken limb is being straightened to tie to a stick.
In fact, the fracture must be fixed in a position comfortable for the injured, let the limb be bent at the same time. Above the ten myths listed below, someone will laugh, like a well-known thing for a long time, but someone will think or remember.
It’s better to suffer yourself, but to help a comrade.
This stereotype was created by the proverb “Die yourself, and help your comrade”, numerous films, books and just ideology and agitation of the Soviet era. Then self-sacrifice and heroism were simply sung. Nobody denies that these qualities are important and valuable, but in real life following these rules can lead to loss of life not only to the rescued, but also to the hero himself. For example, a car crashed into a power line post. The driver may be unconscious inside the car, and the current is not terrible to him, but the hero, rushed to the rescue, may well suffer from the current without seeing the wire. Next and another … As a result, the living driver is surrounded by several heroes who never managed to call the ambulance and rescuers. And all because the heroes did not know the simple rules – first to assess the danger to themselves, and only then – for the victim. It is obvious that if the trouble happens to the rescuer, then it will not be possible to help further. If possible, you should abandon extreme heroism, no matter how cynical it sounds, one corpse is always better than two.
The victim must be reached by any means.
Again, we turn to the topic of roads and road accidents. It turns out that the script is very common, when the victims, before the arrival of the ambulance, were removed from the car by caring helpers and laid on the ground. Only now they drag the person out of the crumpled car by the arms and legs, as a result, to the injuries received are added non-harming, like the deformation of the spine. If a person expected quiet assistance in the car, this could be avoided. As a result, a person can spend much more time in a hospital due to inaccurate care. Witnesses of an accident must first of all call for help and turn off the battery of the emergency vehicle so that the spark does not break out the gasoline. Next, you should fence the place of the accident, stop the bleeding, and with the victim just talk, waiting for the arrival of help. Such a psychological device will give a person to realize that they care about him. But you can drag a person by the arms and legs only when the consequences of help are still preferable to her absence. For example, in case of a fire in the car.
Sometimes it is necessary to pin the tongue to the collar.
There is a bike, according to which the unconscious must be pinned with a pin to his tongue to the collar, in order not to twist the tongue into the respiratory tract. And such cases have happened. In the unconscious state, a person actually lays a tongue, this must be known and this must be combated. However, not the same barbarous method! By the way, getting your tongue out of your mouth is not so easy. After all, it is soft and slippery and so strives to slip, not wanting to stay in the extended state. Yes, and this method is unhygienic. To free the airways from the sunken language, there is a simple method – to turn the person to one side. That’s the way it is recommended to deal with people (usually drunk) sleeping on the street. Put it on its side and that’s it. But if a sleeping drunk is lying on his back, then he is at once threatened by two dangers: to choke on vomiting or suffocate from tongue twisting.If, however, a person can not be put to one side for some reason (for example, if there is a suspicion of a spinal injury), then it will be enough just to throw his head back.
Applying a harness to the neck.
By the way, it’s possible to do this, only the tourniquet is superimposed over the arm. The tourniquet is generally perceived by our people as a universal and the first remedy with heavy bleeding. True, few people remember that the tourniquet can be imposed in the summer for two hours, and in winter – in general for one. Especially often, not the most dangerous shallow cut is harvested, and as a result, an exsanguinated limb can be lost. It is important to remember – the tourniquet is used only to stop arterial bleeding, such blood is much lighter than venous blood. Also because of the pressure, the blood fountain and its height will be obvious. In such a situation, you can not waste time searching for a rope or a rope, you have to pinch the wound with anything, even with your finger, in the places where the artery is closest to the surface (armpits, groin). First, stop the bleeding, and then put the tourniquet. And, of course, immediately send the victim to the hospital. To the bundle, you must attach a note indicating the time of its installation. In the extreme case, you must write this information, even on the patient’s body, even on his forehead. Innocent body art will be forgiven if life is saved. Venous bleeding is better to stop with a tight pressure bandage, let the blood pressure and abundant. Was the bandage soaked with blood? Do not worry – put another layer on top. By the way, the thickness of the bandage doctor will be able to assess the severity of hemorrhage.
Burns should be lubricated with oil.
First of all, it is necessary to understand that a person consists of 80% of water, but also possesses heat capacity in addition to other properties. What is the burn then? Heat gets on the skin, from its surface leaving deeper into the body, into the tissue. Logic suggests that it is possible to remove heat by cooling the burn site, stopping overheating. Therefore, it is justified to cast cold water for a burn and further waiting. Only here we wait usually we a little, usually it occurs all about one minute – before disappearance or softening of a pain. However, this time is not enough for all the heat to come out, something came out, and something – it hid. Next, we smear a lot of burns with oil, ointment, cream or yogurt. As a result, above the place where there is an excess of heat in the tissues, a sealed cushion of substances that prevent them from leaving is created. As a result, the burn is further aggravated. But if a man had the patience to stand under water for 10-15 minutes, the situation would radically change. Then the panthenol or other means can effectively work with the skin, from under which all the heat has already been removed.
You should rub your ears with frostbite.
Frostbite for Russia with its frosts is not at all a curiosity. In this case, the nose and ears quickly turn white, and then lose sensitivity. However, if they are rubbed with snow or hands, they quickly turn red, then pain comes. This is due to the fact that the body is a system of vessels and nerve endings. In the frost, the first freeze, the blood ceases to circulate, the dubs and endings stop, the whole system becomes fragile. Starting vigorous rubbing, we thereby destroy the entire system and break down, causing serious damage to the body. After all, even if a bottle of beer drastically transfer from the cold to heat, it can burst. What can we say about gentle vessels? Therefore, do not fight with frostbite by rubbing. Much more effective will be slow warming, best with barely warm or even cool water. In this case, the consequences of frostbite will not be so deplorable, and the pain with the return of sensitivity is not so strong.
If you are shivering, you must warm it up.
At high temperatures it often happens that the person is shivering, despite the high temperature. In this state, the body trembles, the patient just wants to get under the warm blanket and keep warm.Only here very few people know that in such a situation it is not just harmful to warm up, but it is extremely dangerous. The thing is that the chill at a temperature above 38 degrees indicates that the body overheats, and the temperature therefore grows. Therefore, the person must be cooled, we wrap it warmer, overlaying heaters and blankets. As a result, the body heats up even more, as if being in a thermos. Perhaps even an increase in temperature and 41 degrees, with irreversible consequences in the end. So, with high temperature and chills, it is not worth wrapping, but it should be as cool as possible. It can be a cool bath, wet wiping or a light veil instead of warm blankets – you need to give the body the opportunity to get rid of excess heat. With the application of such measures, high temperature and transferred easier, and will pass faster.
Rinse with potassium permanganate to clean the stomach.
It turns out that manganese crystals dissolve in water only at a temperature of 70 degrees. Therefore, to dilute such a solution in warm water is not only senseless, but also dangerous, since an insoluble crystal can cause a lot of troubles in the stomach mucosa. To clean the stomach enough to drink from 3 to 5 glasses of ordinary warm water, and then cause vomiting.
If a person coughs, then one should pat him on the back.
Also, if a person chokes, there is likely to be a well-wisher who will tap on the back so that the cough has passed quickly. It would seem that from a scientific point of view such strikes irritate the place where the foreign body is located. As a result, the suppressed begins to cough even more, hence the piece that falls into the wrong throat takes off. Indeed, in 99% of cases, all this will happen, but there is one chance that a stuck piece will fall even deeper – into the respiratory tract, with all the ensuing consequences. In this situation, it is better not to knock on the back, even if the person asks about it. It is necessary to calm the person, ask him to make some slow breaths and sharp exhalations. Exhaling is best to slightly bend forward so that the air outlet pipe is as horizontal as possible. After three or four such breathing in and out, the coughing will increase, the stuck piece will fly out and it will happen safely.
Epileptic should unclench the teeth.
This statement is one of the most unshakable among Russians, it is also recommended to insert something between the teeth. Many people are trying to do this, and the epileptics, when they come to, are surprised to find that their mouth is plugged with plastic from a gnawed fountain pen or with fragments of their own teeth. It is not necessary therefore to shove a person in the mouth, which is horrible. A mistake will be that a person in a fit can bite off his tongue. After all, during an attack all the muscles, including the language, are in a tonus. He is tense, therefore, he can not fall out of his mouth and will not get between his teeth. The most dangerous thing that threatens language is the bite of its tip. A small amount of blood while mixing with foam saliva, and creates the appearance of unprecedented destruction, generating such myths. Therefore, do not try to arrange knives or forks between the teeth. In this situation, it will be more correct to stand beside the epileptic on your knees, trying to hold his head, protecting her from the blows to the ground. This is much more dangerous than a hypothetically banned language. But when the active phase and convulsions pass, then you should turn the person to one side, he falls asleep. Although this stage will last and not for long, the muscles will relax in it, so a person risks suffocating from the twisting of the tongue.