Railway transport arose not one hundred years ago. At first they were just trolleys on manual traction, then horses were used.
With the development of technology, locomotives appeared, electricity was used. Today, there are already compounds that do not go on rails at all, but float above them, while achieving fantastic speeds.
The first experiments to create distinctively fast compositions began in New York in the 1960s. To disperse conventional trains on their roofs, tried to install jet engines of the bomber.
The result, albeit experimental, was achieved – the speed was 294 km / h. People were convinced that it was possible to get qualitatively new opportunities in this type of transport.
So there was a first impulse in the development of industry in the field of high-speed land rail transport. The results are already today – high-speed trains run in many countries of the world, being everyday public transport. Let’s talk about the most famous of them.
China Railway High-speed (CRH), China.
China can not stay away from progress. Before the creation of this train, the maximum speed achieved by local trains was no more than 250 km / h. But on April 18, 2007, this model was launched, which now runs on the routes of Beijing-Shanghai, Beijing-Harbin and Beijing-Guangzhou. Chinese engineers planned the launch of the train for the 2008 Olympics. Created a fast team local company Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock. If the predecessor model CRH-2 is designed for speeds of up to 300 km / h, the new CRH-3 has a design speed of up to 350 km / h. The Chinese construction is nevertheless the development of the Japanese train-bullet E2-1000, while the German Siemens with its Velaro technology took part in the development. The first time, the speed on the new lines will still be limited to 300 km / h, but this still allowed to reduce the travel time on the 120 km route from the previous 70 minutes to 30. After the line is finalized, the train will be able to move at the design speed. The Chinese plan to use about 50 such trains every day, each of the eight-car CRH-3 holds about 600 passengers. Inside, of course, the aircraft interior, common for all high-speed trains. On the roof of the composition are placed solar panels. The Chinese report that the new train is more smooth and improved in aerodynamics and control. The locomotive is made of aluminum, so its weight is only 7 tons. In 2009, the Chinese authorities announced their intention to invest 175 billion dollars in the railway system of the country until 2012. This amount includes the order in Japan 140 new high-speed trains.
While the question of Turkey’s accession to the European Union is discussed by officials and diplomats and it is being decided whether the strange is modern enough, the residents themselves are updating their infrastructure. It is not surprising that special attention is paid to the creation of a high-speed transport network. To this end, the Turks purchased several fast trains from the CAF company in Spain, planning to shorten the travel time between Istanbul and Ankara to three hours. The speed of the train is 300 km / h, they accommodate 419 passengers, including 55 in business class cars. In all cars there are video cameras for tracking, and for entrepreneurs there are possibilities for connecting laptops and accessing the Internet. However, the Turks look to the future, not wanting to stop there. With South Korea, they signed a contract for the creation of trains already a new generation, called Eurotemp. Their design speed already reaches 350 km / h. Now only the first, 200 km part of the road between the two largest cities of the country is ready. The train passes it for 87 minutes instead of the usual three hours. The government plans to expand the branches to other cities, allocating 10 years to this program.
Treno Alta Velocità Spa, Italy.
This country became one of the pioneers of high-speed rail traffic – fast trains began to run there in 1978, when the train “Direttissima” began to move between Rome and Florence. Its speed then was a weighty 255 km / h. Today, the construction of a new road network continues, this project is being handled by Treno Alta Velocità Spa. In 2005, a line of local Eurostar appeared between the capital and Naples, here the trains are already accelerating to 300 km / h, and soon the line between Turin and Milan appeared. The trip was marked ETR-500. The Italians plan to join forces with their neighbors and build a full-fledged high-speed rail network between Italy, France, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia.
The birth of the European Union and the blurring of pages were joyfully taken advantage of by companies engaged in trucking. So there was a network of highways between England and the continent. London has now become connected with Brussels and Paris by fast trains. Using the tunnel across the English Channel, you can get from England to Belgium in just 1 hour 43 minutes at a speed of 300 km / h. And here to Paris from London it is necessary to reach about 2 hours. Most of our residents spend about the same amount of time on their country trip. In addition, the passengers of “Eurostar” will arrive at a specially restored London station “Century St. Pancras”. The restoration of this magnificent sample of Victorian architecture cost $ 1.65 billion. To operate on this line, Alstom specially designed and built the 373 series of trains, their operation began in 1993, before the line was created. Now, the ambitious British have plans to create two-story cars, which will increase the flow of passengers to 40 million per year. Curiously, the passengers of this train already felt the whole charm of being stuck under the Channel.
InterCity Express, Germany.
After the launch in France of the famous TGV train, which struck everyone, the Germans did not focus on creating their own high-speed trains. However, after a lapse of 10 years, a worthy response was given. In 1991, the Hamburg-Munich line was launched with high-speed sections, on which trains accelerate to a speed of 330 km / h. The current generation of ICE is developed under the supervision of engineers from Siemens. Today, 60% of passengers on long-distance routes are transported by trains of different generations of ICE. Every day more than 200 trains carry 80 thousand passengers, the average speed reaches 160 km / h. The system includes all the largest cities in the country, there are more than 180 stations. In 1998, ICE marked a major catastrophe in Eschede, which became the largest in the history of high-speed trains. Then the train derailed at a speed of 200 km / h, and killed more than 100 people. This transport system is also very closely integrated with its neighbors – Belgium, Holland and France. Do not forget about the development of Germany in the field of trains on magnetic cushions. So, the test sample “Transrapid maglev” could accelerate to 550 km / hour.
Taiwan High Speed Rail, Taiwan.
Let Taiwan be a small island nation, but there will also be a place for high-speed trains. From the north by the standards of the Taipei country to southern Kaoshiung, the THSR train goes three times faster than the usual trains. As a result, the island can be crossed for an hour and a half, accelerating to 300 kilometers per hour. The high-speed line is built according to the Japanese model, protection against earthquakes and various cataclysms is provided. The line is popular, in just six months of its existence, THSR services benefited more than 10 million passengers. The length of the entire route is about 335 kilometers, and the cost of the project was 15 billion dollars. In the structure of 12 cars, the road is removed from the usual railway track. Passengers for convenience are delivered from the THSR stations to the settlements on free buses.
KTX Rail System, South Korea.
In South Korea, the first high-speed train was launched in 2004. Thanks to him, the route from Seoul to Daejeon was reduced to 49 minutes. The line was based on the French technology TGV, the trains reached speeds of 300 km / h. But today Koreans are close to launching their own train G7, which will be even faster – up to 350 km / h. In the future, it is planned to launch a new generation of trains – “Highspeed Electric Multiple Unit”, which will be able to conquer the bar at 400 km / h.
Shanghai Maglev Train, China.
For high-speed trains, an improved canvas is also needed. Recently, more than 6,000 kilometers of railways have been renovated in China so that fast modern trains can fly on them. As a result, the largest transport network in the world has appeared. Also in 2004, a magnetic cushion train was launched, which connects the Shanghai airport to the city center. Now the road length of 30 kilometers is only 8 minutes, and the composition accelerates to 430 km / h. Ambitious Chinese also plan to build Asia’s largest railway station with a total area of 1.3 million square meters and a height of 5 floors. The train itself is based on the German technology Transrapid, which has not yet been tested at great distances. The record speed is here – 501 km / h.
Alta Velocidad Española, Spain.
Spain can be proud not only of its football grandees and charming architecture. It is in this country that one of the fastest transport networks in the world is created. It connects all the largest cities of the country, and trains on special sections reach a speed of 350 km / h. There are 7 directions in total. Curiously, AVE trains on the Madrid-Sevilla branch guarantee a maximum delay of 5 minutes and a full refund of the ticket price if this interval is exceeded. On the remaining lines, a delay of 15 minutes will allow you to return half of the ticket price, and more than half an hour – a full price. But today, with a delay of just a few minutes, only 0.16% of trains arrived. In the plans of the Spaniards to build an eight-kilometer tunnel through the Pyrenees, which will connect the high-speed road to Barcelona and France. In the capital of Catalonia, they began to build a new railway station through which the Madrid-Barcelona-France line will pass. Completion of all work is planned for 2012. By 2020, in general, it is planned to link the capital of the country with provincial capitals with high-speed lines. Already today, high-speed trains compete with domestic flights, because at comparable prices there is no dependence on the weather, the risks of catastrophes, the need for registration, inspection.
Train à Grande Vitesse, France.
The already mentioned TGV trains are the same technical pride of France as Concords. At the time of their appearance, they were absolute record-breakers in speed. In April 2007, the TGV team developed a speed of 575 km / h, which is the current record for trains using wheels and following on rails. Today, the average speed of transportation of passengers in France is 320 km / h. The first branch was opened in 1981, it connected Paris and Lyon. High speed is achieved by creating special lines without hard turns. Some neighbors are already building their lines in the likeness of TGV, connecting to the French. This type of transport is quite safe – there have not been recorded for the entire operation of any deaths. The idea of creating TGV came to the government back in the 60’s, as a response to the Japanese to build high-speed networks. Then in the country there were trains on an air cushion Aérotrain which reached speeds in 430 km / hour, and the designing of locomotives for usual roads began. The great advantage of the TGV project is the use of conventional stations and paths. However, new routes and stations are being built. Thus, over the past 25 years in France, about 1200 kilometers of expressways have been built. Technologies TGV are also used in other countries – Spain, Korea, the USA.
Shinkansen Trains, Japan.
The triumph of technical thought, of course, belongs to Japan. They were the pioneers of high-speed transportation. In 1964, the first Tokaido express of this type began to run between Tokyo and Osaka. Then the road took 4 hours. Today’s descendant, N700, passes this distance in 515 kilometers in 2 hours 25 minutes. The owners of the network, Japan Railways Group, estimated that in the 40 years of its existence, about 6 billion passengers were transported. Only on the line “Tokaido”, the most popular today, is transported around 375 thousand people daily. In trains on 16 cars in length in 25 meters. Compositions here go every 10 minutes, and the accuracy of arrival is 6 seconds. For such a network uses its own track, coinciding with the European, in contrast to the old Japanese. In addition, for long formations, special stations are required. Now the network carries only passengers, the lines are closed at night. In 1996, the test train on the Tokaido line developed at a speed of 446 km / h, in general the latest development of the Japanese called “MLX01 maglev” was accelerated to 480 km / h, but this composition does not apply to magnetic cushions and rails.