Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is rightfully considered one of the greatest writers. His books are interesting for schoolchildren and mature people. It is no coincidence that the writer received the Nobel Prize in 1954 for his prose. Creativity Hemingway is characterized by numerous stories and novels in which his characters are experiencing a series of thrilling adventures. Events saturated with events do not leave indifferent, they largely influenced the literature of the XX century.
It is interesting that the author himself lived an interesting and colorful life. He did not spend it in a quiet office behind a typewriter, inventing stories. Hemingway hunted sharks with a submachine gun, and on submarines with grenades, actively engaged in politics, squashing nations among themselves. That’s why some facts of the writer’s life are so interesting, in themselves turning into fascinating stories.
Hemingway fought for James Joyce.
It turns out that the legendary writer had a best friend-colleague. Hemingway had a warm relationship with the Irish writer and poet James Joyce. This couple often walked and drank in Paris. It was there that James Joyce often fought in bars. Why he chose this hobby remains a mystery, because the novice writer had health problems. Not only was he fragile, he did not see his opponent’s face at all. Fortunately for Joyce he had a good literary friend, and, in combination, a fighter, Hemingway. Not only did he love boxing, he was also good at it. The famous American boxer Jack Dempsey even said that he was afraid to fight with Hemingway. After all, he had a feeling that that could be covered by the most real madness. And to stop the writer, he had to hurt every time. And every time Joyce entered into a fight, it was enough for him to shout: “Straighten him, Hemingway!”. I had a friend to defend my nondescript friend. So Joyce and Hemingway became the first and last in history pair of boxers-writers.
Hemingway was an extreme fisherman.
In 1934, the writer received an advance for his book with stories. All the money he spent on the purchase of the 11.5-meter yacht “Pilar”, which immediately was greatly altered. It was at this point that Hemingway was addicted to fishing, becoming a real expert. Only in the summer of 1938 he managed to catch 52 marlinas, which seems fantastic. In Cuba, Hemingway became such a legendary fisherman that Fidel Castro in 1960 held even a contest named after the writer. But some of his methods of fishing can be described as unorthodox. So, in 1935, Hemingway caught a shark. It does not seem such a miracle, just struggling with it in a boat, somehow he managed to shoot twice from the Colt and shoot his legs. In another case, which later influenced the creation of the work “The Old Man and the Sea,” Hemingway was able to catch a record large fish. Together with his friend Mike Streeter, the writer hooked the marlin, which they believed was more than 4 meters in length. Fishermen fought for several hours with him, trying to drag him onto the ship. When the sharks began to circle nearby, Hemingway began to shoot at them from the Thompson machine gun. But the blood of predators only attracted their new brethren. By the time the marlin was dragged aboard, the fish was almost severed in half, but still weighed 227 kilograms.
Hemingway hunted for submarines in the “Hooligan fleet.”
In 1942, German submarines began to sink US cargo ships. The Navy still did not recover from the heavy losses at Pearl Harbor and was forced to ask civilian volunteers to help patrol the coast on private yachts. These assistants began to be called the “Hooligan fleet”. People simply patrolled the terrain, reporting with their radio on the ground about everything they saw. There was only one unusual helper – this, of course, Hemingway. He called himself a captain and began patrolling the coast of Cuba in order to sink a submarine.For this, the writer had weapons in the form of a Thompson machine gun and hand grenades. Hemingway assembled a motley team of former bullfighters, Basque athletes, businessmen and marines. The writer believed that the submarine would pay attention to his ship “Pilar” and rise to the surface. To destroy such a small ship, the Germans will feel sorry for the torpedo, and they will try to use airborne weapons. According to Hemingway’s plan, the yacht should have approached the submarine, his team was to throw grenades into the battle deck and finish the rout with machine guns. It sounds rather extravagant, but Hemingway did not sink, however, not a single submarine found it. This suggests that the patrols were just an excuse to fish and get drunk with friends.
Scam when working as a military correspondent.
In 1944, the writer worked as a military correspondent for the American magazine Coller’s. Hemingway already had a similar experience, at 44, he was not a newcomer. The writer was present at the landing in Normandy, but he remained at that time on board the ship. The military considered him an important person, afraid to lose. But they quickly realized that Hemingway was not the kind of person about whom he had to constantly care or tell what to do. During the journey with the 22nd Regiment, the writer received permission to conduct an intelligence operation in Rambouillet. Soon he was at the head of a detachment of partisans, consisting of militia, a secret agent, several French soldiers and civilians. All of them unquestioningly obeyed the orders of their boss, calling him “Father”, “Captain” or even “The Great Captain”. Cutthroats-guerrillas so idolized Hemingway, that even began to copy his manners and style. The detachment grew to 200 people, more and more residents and French soldiers joined it. Hemingway himself, working ahead of the main Allied forces, even wore the colonel’s uniform, in which he led several times to fight his soldiers. Although Hemingway was eventually acquitted for his partisan activities, the participation of military correspondents in hostilities is a violation of the Geneva Convention. The journalist used weapons, fired at people and acted like a regular military man. Hemingway fell under the tribunal, but he just lied there and returned again to the battlefields. The writer took part in a huge battle on the German border in November 1944, where more than 33,000 Americans died. He himself managed to survive, having received for bravery the Bronze Star two years after the end of the war.
Hemingway fought with Orson Wells.
In 1937, the actor was hired to participate in the documentary film “The Spanish Land”. For him, Hemingway wrote the text. But when he heard how Wells read it aloud, he made a scandal. The writer did not like the sound of the actor’s voice. Then Wells suggested making some changes to Hemingway’s original script, mostly about cutting out large pieces of text. The writer was even more angry! The quarrel quickly developed into a stream of mutual insults, and eventually Hemingway even declared: “Some damn stupid art theater thinks that it can tell me how to write!” Wells answered with sarcasm, copying the opponent’s voice and depriving him of manly notes. Soon the struggle went from words to assault. The writer and actor even appeared on the stage before the documentary on it. While they were depicting pictures of fighting and war, Wells and Hemingway beat each other in the foreground. But later they reconciled and became good friends. Nevertheless, this did not stop the writer from deleting the entire text of Wells and replacing it with his own.
Hemingway was a cat-keeper.
In 1931, the writer acquired a special cat. She was white and polydactyl, that is, she had six fingers on each leg due to a genetic mutation. Such a gift was made by the writer’s friend, Captain Dexter. Hemingway called his pet “Snowball”.The writer became obsessed with this rare mutation, at the end of his life in his estate Ki-West, lived about fifty such rare cats. Once Ham was forced to shoot the cat Willie, got under the car. He was moved by the writer even wrote letters, telling how he misses. Hemingway did so much to promote the breed, that it is now even called in his honor. Currently, the house in Key West is given to the author’s museum. Those who are fortunate enough to be there will be able to see that here and today polydactyl cats live everywhere. They represent different breeds, they are united by one – an increased number of fingers on the paws. These animals move freely around the house, they are allowed to do whatever they want. Almost all of them are direct descendants of the “Snowball”. It seems that this four-legged friend of the writer had the same free character as Hemingway himself. A special commission came to the conclusion that such a family of rare cats is a national treasure.
Hemingway believed that he was being watched by the government.
Toward the end of his life, the writer was emotionally and morally exhausted, he developed paranoia. He began to think that he was constantly being watched, spied on and auditioned by the “feds”. Being at the wheel of the car, the writer thought that he followed specially other cars. Hemingway stopped attending bars, he did not like the way he was looked at by strangers. One night, while driving past the bank and seeing the delayed employees there, the writer considered them to be government agents who were following him personally. Paranoia became stronger, as a result, his family and friends were worried about Hemingway’s condition. The writer was identified in a psychiatric hospital, where he was treated with electric shock therapy. For medicine in the 1960s, this was common. But Hemingway’s condition worsened even more. He saw the FBI agents at all, believed that his phone was constantly being listened to. As a result, the writer began to try to commit suicide, which he managed with time. And the most tragic thing is that he had every reason for such paranoia.
He was really followed by the government.
The writer is a classic example of the old saying: “If you are paranoid, it does not mean that you are not being followed.” For many years people believed that Hemingway’s mania simply became a sign of his growing insanity. And while the writer’s friends considered his fears groundless, he was actually followed by the FBI. In 1983, years after the suicide of Hemingway, documents were published under the “Freedom of Information Act”. It became clear that the supervision of the writer was initiated personally by FBI head Edgar Hoover. The document with detailed results of the investigation took 127 pages. And Hemingway’s paranoia had a basis – his phones were actually listened to by the feds, his car was monitored and his bank accounts checked. Why did the FBI pay attention to the greatest American writer? Edgar Hoover was generally suspicious of the writers. This is evidenced, at least, by the persecution of George Steinbeck, just for the sake of his discomfort. Hoover feared Hemingway because of his level of fame and connections with respected people. The authorities suspected that the writer could have long-standing contacts in Cuba. It is likely that Hoover was right, worrying about the reliability of the writer. After all, he was on the list of KGB agents in the United States for a long time.
Hemingway was a KGB agent.
In the 1940s, Hoover observed everyone he did not trust. Usually it was about famous people, representatives of the intelligentsia or simply disagreeing with the authorities. We will no longer know which file was on the Hemingway in the FBI, but it is precisely known that the writer had been a KGB agent all this time. In the early 1990s, many archives of the Soviet secret service were declassified. It became known that the writer was recruited during his trip to China, giving the pseudonym “Argo”. Then Hemingway often met with Soviet agents in Cuba and in England. The documents note that the spy acted actively, trying to help the KGB.But the new James Bond Hemingway never did. Information extracted by him, was useless. In the 1950s, the spy was considered unfit for further use, his name disappeared from the KGB lists. Now we can only guess what Hemingway was guided by when taking such a decision on cooperation with the USSR. Maybe he decided to “play” for the sake of literary inspiration, giving only useless information? Or his real benefit prevented drunkenness?
The proximity of death.
Despite all his recklessness, Hemingway never perished in numerous alterations, and committed suicide himself. But dozens of times his life hung by a thread. His legs were pierced by a machine-gun fire, 273 pieces of a mine fell into the body. Hemingway repeatedly got into accidents and catastrophes. He had severe bruises, fractures of bones, and concussions of the brain. Twice he was injured in hunting, and nearly was not burnt in a forest fire. Hemingway suffered skin cancer, anthrax, malaria, diabetes, hepatitis and pneumonia. His kidney and spleen were broken, the base of his skull was broken. Thus the vertebra has successfully grown together, having allowed to avoid a paralysis. And as fate tested the writer for steadfastness, so he himself seemed to check his heroes on the strength of character.
An unusual autograph.
It turns out that Hemingway suffered from peyraphobia. This is the name of fear of public speaking. The writer never trusted even the most sincere compliments on the part of his admirers. And most of all he did not like to give autographs at such meetings. Not surprisingly, such signatures of Hemingway are now highly valued. One of his admirers, Victor Hill, made a bet with a friend that he would be able to take an autograph from the writer. It seemed impossible. For three months, the annoying fan annoyed the writer with the request to give him an autograph. Finally, he gave up and wrote to the persecutor on the inside of the cover of the book: “To Victor Hill, a real son of a bitch who can not understand the answer” no! “.
Love to women’s cocktails.
If the brave James Bond preferred vodka from martini, Hemingway liked cocktails Daiquiri and Mojito. This addiction seems feminine. But psychologists can easily explain this. In their opinion, such drinks are chosen by those men who remain children in the depths of their souls. And although Hemingway fought a lot, fought, got into fights with wild animals, he was not able to protect a weak woman. The writer was attracted by strong personalities who came to defend their homeland, not being afraid of the sight of blood, caring for the wounded, driving cars and going out in the world. And the recklessness of the writer could turn out to be the reverse side of the fear of death and the unconscious desire to prove first of all to oneself his courage.
Hemingway seemed an example of masculinity, and in fact his mother wanted a girl, not a boy, to be born. It was generally a stubborn woman, sometimes doing strange things. Until he reached the age of four, he was dressed up in women’s dresses and grew long hair. And then my mother suddenly decided that my son would make a good musician. The boy was immediately given lessons in the game on the double bass, for which they even took a year earlier from school. But the mother plans to fulfill was not fated – the writer himself admitted that he played disgustingly on this musical instrument.
During the years of his work, the writer published seven novels, six collections of stories and two more popular science books. Many of his works are considered today a classic of world literature. And most of the books were created in Hemingway’s bedroom, part of which he made his workplace. At the same time, the writer preferred to create standing on his feet. He only sometimes carried the weight from one foot to the other. For the day of work he wrote up to seven pencils.
Hunter S. Thompson investigated the suicide of the writer, but committed the same theft.
The writer’s suicide in 1961 shocked the whole world.Hemingway had a great influence on his colleagues, who hardly suffered the death of an idol. One of the names of people whose lives suffered from this was Hunter S. Thompson. The life of this writer also abounded in adventure. In 1964, he went to Ketchum, Idaho to visit the same house in which Hemingway spent the last two years of his life. Thompson was preparing an article for The National Observer, entitled “What Hemingway brought to Ketchum.” About the hero, the writer responded emotionally, but in conclusion he noted that it was “an old, sick man with many problems.” Working on the article, Thompson noticed an impressive pair of moose horns hanging over the entrance to Hemingway’s office. The writer decided that he certainly would not be able to do half of all those crazy things that his idol. Then he decided to at least a little taste of insanity by stealing these horns.