An electric vehicle
is a car that is driven by an electric motor, rather than from an internal combustion engine. The source of energy is usually the batteries.
Electric cars have their own variants – an electric car (a truck for working in closed areas, lifting cargo) and an electric bus (a bus with an electric accumulator).
Electric cars are becoming more common. In addition, there is a large number of self-made samples. You can also buy devices for converting a conventional car into an electric car.
Today, the leader in the production of electric vehicles is China. Interest in this kind of transport is fueled by their ecological cleanliness and low operating costs, and the rather high price of electric vehicles and the small mileage from one charge prevent the spread.
Curious, but the first electric vehicle appeared even before the internal combustion engine, in 1841. In Russia, such transport appeared only in 1899. The market of electric vehicles is very promising, but some myths interfere with their dissemination, which we will consider.
Electric vehicles do not solve environmental problems, instead of them, nature is polluted by power plants.
Even today, with 52% utilization of coal-fired power plants in the US, the use of such vehicles will significantly reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere. After all, the use of energy in electric vehicles is 3-5 times more efficient than in conventional engines. This means that even when coal is burned in power plants to generate energy for cars of this class, they will still be much less harmful to the environment than those who use gasoline. The use of environmentally friendly energy sources in general makes such cars almost 100% harmless.
Buyers simply do not need machines with such a low power reserve.
Yes, electric vehicles have an average power reserve of about 300 kilometers. But after all, and more often we have to leave mobile phones for recharging at night, to use them the next day. The same situation with electric cars. It is estimated that 90% of motorists all over the world pass a day no more than 90 kilometers. According to the same US Department of Transportation, local motorists per day on average travel about 40 miles. Most of the new batteries have a power reserve twice as large. In addition, now in different countries there is a massive installation of charging points, which can charge the battery to 80% in just 15 minutes. It is also possible to charge from an ordinary electrical outlet. The problem can also be solved with the use of hybrid cars, which in such a mixed mode can take up to 300 kilometers.
Electric vehicle batteries have a short lifespan and they are expensive.
Today, manufacturers of modern lithium and ion batteries for electric vehicles give a guarantee for their products for 10 years, or even more. But during this time a quarter of the machines themselves will be on the landfill for various reasons, and half of the internal combustion engines will already undergo major overhaul. The high cost of a battery is really a fact. However, it is expected that with the increase in production, their price will fall. Some manufacturers also plan to provide batteries in general for rent.
To develop a network of electric vehicles, new energy capacities will be required.
It is often heard that the simultaneous charging of millions of electric vehicles will simply disable the country’s electrical network. It is estimated that even if all US cars become electric, the amount of available electricity at the peak of its consumption will be enough to charge about 80% of the cars. In Denmark, Norway and other countries where alternative energy is developed, there is no problem of electricity shortages, there is even a question of the excess of its generation.
There is not enough lithium to produce electric vehicle batteries.
There are quite large volumes of lithium carbonate on the planet. So, in South America and China, this substance is generally extracted directly from the surface of huge salt lakes. In addition, recycling of lithium-ion batteries allows you to restore their capacity to 90% of the original volume. It is worth remembering the use of recycled lithium batteries. It is estimated that even without this factor, while maintaining the pace and methodology of lithium mining, its reserves in the US alone will last for 75 years with the aggressive pace of selling electric vehicles. But in the US, only a quarter of the world’s reserves of this metal.
Electric vehicles are not safe.
This can not be asserted, because any certified electric vehicle from a major manufacturer meets all the necessary requirements for passive safety. In addition, the internal architecture of the body of the electric vehicle enables its designers to increase the dimensions of the front crumple zone.
The technology of electric vehicles is too complex for mass application.
This is not true, in the electric motor of the main moving elements there are only 5, whereas in the gasoline or diesel analogue there will be hundreds. The owner of the electric car will not have to change the engine oil and filters, think about how high-quality gasoline poured and even brake linings here will serve three to five times longer.
Electric cars are good only for a city with its short distances.
For more than seven years the mass use of such transport has shown – it can be used for long journeys up to 120 miles.
Before you introduce electric vehicles, you need to create a charging station infrastructure.
It is planned that most of the charges can be carried out in general at home, so that the availability of public stations is not a prerequisite for development. Nevertheless, such an infrastructure must still be present – after all, not all live in private homes, one must also remember travelers for long distances. Today in the US, at least seven companies compete quite vigorously in the creation of networks of charging stations, promising to distribute them sufficiently throughout the country.
The chemicals of the battery itself are harmful to the environment and can not be recycled.
In normal vehicles, 99% of batteries can be recycled. In the new batteries there are already valuable metals, which makes it unreasonable to question their processing. There are special programs for using such accumulators to store energy after they have served their time in the car.
Lithium batteries are dangerous – they can explode.
There are many types of lithium-ion batteries, as well as lithium-cobalt batteries, which are used in consumer electronics. They can really ignite under certain conditions. However, everything is done to reduce risks. To do this, advanced control systems and battery design are used, thus avoiding heat leakage. Most of the batteries in cars are generally of other types (lithium-iron-phosphate and lithium-manganese), which have advantages in terms of safety and service life.
The electric vehicle is charging too long.
It is most convenient to charge it at night when the driver sleeps in his home. Even using a 120-volt outlet that is common to the United States will allow you to charge the car for a distance of 40 miles. Most of the new projects can be charged from 240-volt points, receiving at the same time a double or even a triple charge. Moreover, there are new charging stations, which further reduce the time of restoration of energy reserves.
Electric cars are too expensive for the market.
But all new technologies are also expensive. Do you remember the prices for the first mobile phones and DVD players? Do not forget that in the US, for example, the government encourages the purchase of electric vehicles, allocating a tax credit for this amount from 2500 to 7500 dollars.Some states offer additional incentives, in the amount of $ 5,000 (California and Texas). As a result, both the acquisition and operation of electric vehicles are at the level of conventional analogues. In addition, such transportation does not require practically any maintenance, as well as repair.
Until 2050, the majority will still drive cars of the usual type.
There are several important reasons for switching from gasoline to electricity. The fuel economy standards and government restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are tightened, the growth of prices for petroleum products is forecasted in the conditions of growing demand for them. It is also important for the country to reduce its energy dependence, which is the task of national security. Yes, and changes in the climate make it more vigorous for governments to introduce programs for the transition to environmentally friendly modes of transport.
Electric vehicles have a low noise level, which can create problems for pedestrians.
According to this myth, people, crossing the road, often focus only on the sounds of the car, which in the case of a quiet electric car is fraught with incidents. In some countries, therefore, it is even suggested to specifically increase the noise of electric vehicles. However, the sharp noise of a powerful electric motor running is difficult to confuse with something. It is enough to recall only trolleybuses, electric cars or subway trains. Therefore, an electric car needs the same noise reduction as conventional vehicles. In addition, any modern car at a low speed makes very little noise, basically it is the noise of the wheels rubbing against the coating. But when using low-noise engines (as, for example, in trams), noise is virtually non-existent.
All the energy of the battery is spent on movement.
The batteries in these cars work well only when driving at constant speeds or when traveling smoothly. Sharp starts lead to large energy expenditure, which forces manufacturers to create special starting systems on condensers. Also about 10% of energy is lost in the gearbox and transmission elements. Part of the electricity goes also to the heating of the cabin and to the power of other onboard power consumers.
Electric cars can not drive fast.
As early as 1899, electric cars were able to overcome the 100 km / h limit, becoming the fastest on the planet. On October 4, 2010, the Venture Jamais Contente car with lithium-ion batteries on the salt lake in Utah set a new record for electric vehicles at a range of 1 kilometer. The indicator was 495 km / h, and even at speed of 505 km / h was reached during the race.