Height – 20-22 cm, weight – 200-210 gr.
This week the movement of the child can already be felt, the heart beat is clearly heard through the stethoscope. The cardiovascular system is already fully formed. Now on ultrasound it is possible to determine whether there are suspicions of congenital defects – defects in the structure of the heart and large vessels.
Congenital pathology occurs in about 5 newborns out of 1000. In recent years, this figure has been growing due to improved devices and quality of diagnosis. Most defects are amenable to surgical treatment, so that such babies can develop normally.
Until now, most of the factors leading to congenital heart disease (CHD) are unknown to physicians. It is established that the cause of dysfunction is not necessarily a genetic predisposition. For example, if one child has a heart defect in the family, the risk of having a second child with a similar disease is only 1-5%.
According to statistics, there are seasonal correlations in the birth of children with different types of UPU. For example, the open arterial duct is more common in girls born from October to January. In March and April, boys with coarctation of the aorta (congenital constriction of the aorta at some site) are more likely to be born, and in September and October such boys are not born at all.
Sometimes in a certain geographical area suddenly there are many children with UPU, it even resembles an epidemic. Scientists believe that such seasonal and geographical fluctuations can be associated with the effects of unfavorable ecology, as well as virus epidemics, such as influenza and rubella (especially if the epidemic occurred in the first three months of pregnancy).
Especially it can affect if the future child and his mother are affected by other unfavorable factors: genetic predisposition, general weakening of the body, other viral diseases, diabetes in the mother, stress. Certainly, alcohol, tobacco and some medications are dangerous: anticonvulsant hydantoin, trimethadione, preparations containing amphetamines, lithium and progestogens.
The mother’s age, the threat of miscarriage and the intake of endocrine drugs for the maintenance of pregnancy, formerly the woman stillbirths, endocrine disorders in the spouses become additional risk factors.
If a doctor discovers the possibility of a CHD in a fetus, he must refer the woman to repeated studies (ultrasound of the fetal heart, electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram) under the close supervision of specialists. In severe forms of CHD, childbirth occurs in a specialized hospital. Often, the future mother begins to take special supporting medications.
It should be noted that doctors usually refer to the possibility of UPU very carefully and believe that it is better to be reinsured than to be uninsured. Therefore, do not worry seriously if the doctor sends you for additional special investigations. In the vast majority of cases, suspicions of UPU are removed.
Your weight gain reached 6 kg (normal). A little more than half a pregnancy is ahead. If you are gaining too much weight, talk to your doctor. In the second and third trimester, you will be heavily plump, but by the end of pregnancy, still not desirable to add more than 15 kg. If you gain more, it will be more difficult for you to give birth and it is more difficult to return to the old dimensions after giving birth.
The womb is two fingers below the navel. Its size is at least 16 cm high. It is comparable in size to the average melon. This week, you can already feel how your baby moves, even if you have the first pregnancy.
If you have not purchased a special bandage for pregnant women, now is the time to do it. Why is it needed? First, it supports your growing stomach, which after birth will look less saggy. Secondly, the bandage makes it easier to load on your back, which is very important. The more a child becomes, the harder your spine is.
In addition to being pressed by the uterus, he has to carry extra kilograms of weight, swiftly falling on him. Whether a joke, for 9 months to receive still 12-15 kg in loading, and then still very much to work during sorts.
To prevent intervertebral hernia and other complications, as well as back pain, which can lead the expectant mother almost to a steady state, a special bandage is needed. There are many models on the market and you need to be patient in order to find the one that is convenient for you. But the effort and money spent are worth it.
специальные To maintain yourself in good shape and prepare for childbirth, special exercises should be done. Many future mothers are specially enrolled in preparation courses for childbirth, where all these exercises are shown to them by instructors. We give some of them.
1. Temporary retention of urination – if this is possible easily and without problems, then the pelvic floor is correct in shape. If it does not work out, train, after a while you will succeed.
2. Repeated contractions – shorten and relax the pelvic floor muscles. First, do 10 times 4 times a day, gradually bring up to 50 times 4 times a day.
3. Delay – shorten the pelvic floor muscles, count to 5, then relax. Perform 10 times. When you can reach a delay of 15-20 seconds, you will achieve the maximum level of fitness. Only, please, do it gradually.
These exercises must be performed in different positions: sitting, standing, lying, on all fours.
1. This complex prepares the muscles of the hips and pelvis for childbirth.
2. Squatting for 1 minute 10 times a day.
3. Sitting in Turkish 10 minutes 2-3 times a day, keep your back straight.
4. Stretching while sitting in Turkish. Sit in Turkish, connect the heels together and try to reach the floor with your knees. Just try to get really not necessarily, only very trained women can do it.
5. Rotation of the shoulders – lift them forward, up to the ears, then back and down. So the muscles of the shoulders and necks are trained, which receive a very serious load during labor and then with the care of the baby.
6. Knees to the chest – stand on all fours, rest on the floor with knees and hands, curl your back up like a cat, and try to pull your head down to your knees. Do five minutes a day. This posture is very convenient when your back hurts.
In addition to special exercises to prepare for childbirth, you can engage in reasonable limits and normal physical exercises. The main thing is not to overdo it. Now you are doing sports not to surprise your trainers with results and not to lose weight, but only to give the body an extra workout, which results in a vital baby and oxygen. If you are at risk or if you have had miscarriages, you probably do not need to exercise.
The most useful sport for pregnant women is swimming. If you can swim – it’s great, try to do it as often as possible. If you do not know how, just go to the pool and buy it where it’s shallow. Water and all kinds of movement in it are very useful for the organism of the future mother.
Walking is also a sport for pregnant women. It is useful to walk them, especially by nature. Choose a park or go to the dacha if you have it, and walk 4 km a day at a calm pace. By the end of pregnancy, the distance should be shortened, but do not cancel the walk.
If you find yourself during pregnancy on the seashore, use the healing power of thalassotherapy. Walking along the beach barefoot in the sand in the morning or in the evening (when not hot) is the ideal way to improve your body and help the development of the baby. Swimming in the sea is also much more useful than swimming in the pool.
It’s better not to run better, unless you actively ran before pregnancy, and you have no complications. But all the same to the second trimester it is desirable to transform run in pedestrian walks.
You can not do everything that can lead to falls, bumps, overstrain of the back. For example: horse riding, cycling, skiing, skating, motorcycles – all this is prohibited. Do not engage in tennis, football, basketball and other exercises with the ball. Golf, as a very serene sport, can be good as entertainment during a walk.
Sauna, sauna and solarium, although they give cheerfulness to the body, but during pregnancy are undesirable. It is better to replace all this with a trip to the shore of the warm sea. The second trimester is almost the ideal time for traveling. In the third trimester, of course, it is undesirable to leave far from home and the doctor.
Choose where possible traveling by train or car, when taking off and landing in a plane, there is a pressure drop, which can (although such cases are infrequent) have a negative impact. And be sure to arrange increased medical insurance, especially if you go abroad.
17 weeks – 18 weeks – 19 weeks