Dmitry Alekseevich Milyutin
(July 10 (June 28) 1816 (18160628), Moscow – January 25 (February 7) 1912, Simeiz) – Count, Adjutant General, Field Marshal General (August 16, 1898), one of the closest, the most energetic and most deserved staff of Emperor Alexander II.
Dmitry Alekseevich Milyutin was born in 1816 in the family of a nobleman; This family did not possess deep aristocratic roots-the hereditary nobility received the surname in 1740. Father DA. Milutin was a very educated man, and his mother had ancient noble roots and belonged to the Kiselev family.
In 1845 Milutin was elected professor at the Military Academy. In 1861 Alexander II appointed Dmitry Alekseevich Milutin as military minister, in this position he stayed until 1881.
Dmitry Milyutin began to receive education in the Noble Pension. He was at the Moscow University. Already in the years of study in this institution, Dmitry wrote his first work in the field of mathematics and literature. In 1833, Dmitry Milyutin graduated from the Noble Board, receiving a silver medal.
Dmitry Milyutin entered the military academy immediately in the last class.
This was preceded by the Guards service in St. Petersburg. Having enrolled in the last class of the Military Academy, Milutin brilliantly finished his studies in 1836.
Dmitry Alekseevich was serving in the General Staff.
In the period from 1839 to 1845 he was a member of the troops of the Black Sea Coast and the Caucasian Line, where he participated directly in battles. Milyutin’s courage was noted by his chief P.Kh. Grabe, whose Dmitry Alekseevich served as adjutant. The capture of Shamil took place exactly according to the plan worked out by Milutin – he was at that time the chief of staff of the Caucasian army.
Military service Milutin combined with hard work.
He thoroughly studied such special sciences as physics, topography, geodesy, etc. He was engaged in literary work: for the Military Encyclopaedic Dictionary, Milyutin provided 150 articles written on various disciplines written in person.
Milyutin is a professor at the Military Academy.
Dmitry Alekseevich was elected professor in 1845 – at that time he was only 29 years old. Milutin conducted lectures on military geography and statistics. In 1847 Dmitry Alekseevich received a new appointment. He becomes an adjutant under AI. Chernyshev – the Minister of War. A little later, with the new military minister (VA Dolgorukov), Milyutin becomes a scientific adviser.
Milyutin is the author of the “History of the War between Russia and France in the reign of Paul I in 1799”.
This book, published in 1852, brought Milyutin wide popularity among the educated society of the Russian Empire. Contemporaries valued in it the thoroughness of the study, the talent of presentation. They liked a special – patriotic – spirit that permeated the whole work of Dmitry Alekseevich Milyutin. Subsequently, the book was reprinted several times. It was translated into French and German. Milutin received for his work an honorable Demidov Prize.
Milyutin understood that war with Europe was inevitable.
Dmitry Alekseevich had a broad outlook, therefore, realizing the inevitability of military operations with European countries, he spoke of the extremely low readiness of Russian troops for her. This was in the early fifties of the XVIII. Before the disgraceful end of the Crimean War it was still far away. But already at this time Milutin understood that the personnel of the Russian army was only fit to participate in the parades, but not in combat operations. To change this situation, radical reforms in the military branch were needed.
Milyutin is a member of the commission for the development of military improvements.
This commission was headed by General FV Rediger; Milutin joined it in 1856 – immediately after the conclusion of the Paris Treaty. Beginning this year, Milutin begins to think hard about possible ways of transforming the army.In March 1856, Dmitry Alekseevich filed a note to the commission, which outlined the factors that significantly reduce the fighting efficiency of the Russian army, as well as ways to overcome their negative impact. Among other things, Milutin pointed out the destructive power of serfdom; however, the author was very critical of the whole of Russian reality. At the same time, Milyutin referred to the political structure of Western Europe, giving him more preferences than the Russian one.
Milutin is the Minister of War.
He received this post in 1861. His goal was to completely reorganize the armed forces of the Russian Empire. He meant the creation of a mass army, the strength of which was to be the minimum possible in peacetime and as much as possible – during the war years. This could be possible only if there is a trained reserve staff.
In general, according to DA Milyutin, the army should have the following characteristics: the personnel is fully trained, the army is equipped with modern technology, the army is subject to new rules.
The number of concrete measures included the introduction of military service – 1874. It replaced the recruiting kits that were burdensome with society and extended to the entire male population, which reached a certain age of twenty-one years (the representatives of all estates). Among those who reached the age of 21, lots were drawn, according to which the decision was made who will go to serve this year.
The undoubted merit of the reform was the reduction in the service life. If, prior to the adoption of the decree on universal military service, the drafters had to serve for dozens of years, now the total period of service was clearly established. He was fifteen years old, of which six were assigned to active service and nine years to serve in reserve.
Milyutin emphasized the need for the training of officers.
To achieve this goal, according to the Minister of War, training was given to the rank and file personnel – in 1875 the need for literacy of ordinary soldiers was recognized. Specially created educational institutions taught them reading and writing.
Milyutin advocated the development of the military industry.
His new armaments are taken by a new American rifle, however, in many respects it is being improved by Russian scientists. In the years when Milutin was a minister of war, the production of steel cannons began and expanded.
Milyutin is an important statesman.
Dmitry Alekseevich, in addition to military issues, reflected on many other things, nevertheless, of national importance. For example, he was very categorical about serfdom, and to any manifestation of the suppression of one class by another.
Conducted by D.A. Milyutin reform was tested in practice.
This test was the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 – 1878; transformation Milutin withstood her with dignity. The Russian army was mobilized in just four weeks; and on day 42 the personnel were already ready to deploy the offensive. Until the end of 1877, Dmitry Alekseevich was at the front of hostilities, and although Milutin did not take part in them directly, he closely followed the command of the troops.
For example, after the failed second attempt to capture Plevna, the Minister of War explained to the command that it was necessary to move from the storm to the siege of the fortress. So it was done, but not immediately after the recommendation, and after another attempt to storm Plevna – unsuccessful …
Sam DA. Miliutin, after some time after the end of the war, said without any pride that all his enemies were forced to acknowledge the increased combat readiness of the Russian army, its excellent preparedness and equipment. By the way, foreign military observers also did not deny the merits of the Russian minister.
Dmitry Alekseevich was also appreciated by the emperor himself – right after the conclusion of the peace treaty, Alexander II awarded Milutin with the Order of St. George of the 2nd degree.The Minister of War was also elevated to Count’s dignity.
Milyutin sought to prevent a new military conflict in Europe.
For example, after the Berlin Congress of 1878, which brought to nothing many points beneficial for the Russian Empire of the Treaty of San Stefano, Milutin was still against new military actions. The Minister of War understood that a new war would bring more losses to the people than the negative aspects of the Berlin Congress.
Ми Milyutin spent the last thirty years of his life in his native estate.
In 1881, at the age of 65, Dmitry Alekseevich resigned. The rest of his life he spends, modestly living in his estate in the Crimea. During these years, he devoted a lot of time to literary work – working on “Parenting.”