Cycling (cycling) – movement on the ground by means of vehicles (bicycles – French velocipede, from Latin velox – fast and pes – foot), driven by the force of the muscles of a person through foot pedals or hand levers.
Cycling, unlike many Olympic sports, having a thousand-year history, appeared not so long ago – at the end of the XIX century. Despite this, this sport was represented in the program of all the Olympic Games. The first official competition in cycling – a race at 2 000m – was held on May 31, 1868 in the suburbs of Paris Saint-Cloud. A year later the first Paris-Rouen road race was organized. To overcome the distance of 120 kilometers, the winner of the competition, an Englishman J. Moore, took 10 hours and 45 minutes.
As time went by, the design of the bike became more and more perfect, and the movement on them was quick and comfortable. Cycling has gained wide popularity, in favor of this statement is evidenced by the fact that since 1870 in various countries of Europe begins the construction of tracks, and already in 1890 in this sport there was a division of racers into professionals, amateurs and independent. In accordance with the aforementioned division, championships were held for various categories of athletes. In 1893 in Chicago was organized the first world champion in the track for amateur athletes, from 1895 the world championships for sprinters-professionals are played out. Since 1903, the race for professionals of the Tour de France (5 000 km) has been held.
The first World Championship on the highway for amateurs was held in 1921. 190km for professional riders in 1927. 185km for female athletes in 1958. As a sport, cycling is governed by the International Union of Cyclists, founded in 1900 and headquartered in Switzerland.
The main disciplines of cycling:
Racing on track
(a closed oval circular road for competitions with a wooden covering, the length of which is from 130 to 500 meters, the width is from 5 to 7 meters, the slope on straight sections is 12.5 degrees, at corners – 42 degrees) – overcoming the distance in the shortest time. Types of cycling racers:
– Hit (from the spot or on the move) for 500 or 1000 meters – an individual discipline of cycling that does not require the rider to apply special tactics. The task of athletes is to quickly overcome the distance (the result is fixed to a thousandth of a second);
– Individual pursuit race (4000 meters for men, 3000 meters for women), whose goal is to catch up with the opponent or show the best time. The race is held on a drop-out system, included in the Olympic Games program since 1964 for male athletes, since 1992 for women;
– Team pursuit race;
– Keirin – was invented in Japan in 1948. Simultaneously, start 6-9 riders, in front of which the motorcyclist is moving (the riders do not have the right to overtake him), gradually increasing the speed from 25 to 50 km / h. When the rider leaves the track (600-700 meters to the finish), the riders try to drive as quickly as possible. This type of competition was first included in the program of the 2000 Olympics in Sydney;
– Madison (first held at Madison Square Garden), 60 km – team track cycling track in which a team of two riders tries to score as many points as possible (charge every 20 laps);
– Race on points (40 km for men, 25 km – for women) – individual race, Olympic sport. The number of participants is unlimited, the goal is to score the maximum number of points (charge every 10 laps);
– Sprint – race on the cycle track with the participation of 2-4 athletes selected in qualifying races.The oldest discipline of cycling – in the program of world championships since 1893 (for women – since 1895), the Olympic Games – since 1896 (for women – since 1988);
– Olympic Sprint;
– Scratch – group race, not related to the Olympic disciplines;
– Omnium – all-around.
is the most developed commercially and extremely popular in Europe cycling discipline. The most famous bike races (“Tour de France”, “Giro d’Italia”, “Vuelta”) since 2005 are united in the annual series of races with a general offset – “Pro Tour”. Types of road cycling:
– Team time trial with separate start;
– Group race;
– Individual time trial with separate start;
– Criterium – group circular (ring) race through the streets of the city. The length of one circle is 1-3 km, the number of circles is up to 50. It differs from the group race by points on the track in that individual and team tests are possible in the criterion, while only individual results of the athletes are taken into account on the track.
Cross Country Race
– competitions held at a distance abounding artificially created or natural obstacles (ditches, steep ascents and descents, fallen trees, etc.). For this sport, mountain bikes are used most often (mountain bike), featuring a strengthened frame, shock-absorbing rear suspension, thick tires, sturdy wheels, etc. In these competitions, several types of driving are distinguished:
– Bike trial – overcoming artificially created or natural obstacles;
– Dirt – jumping on a cascade of springboards, complicated by parallel execution of tricks of various complexity;
– Cross-country – high-speed riding on rough terrain;
– Velocross – cross country skiing (average speed of participants does not exceed 20 km / h). Athletes overcome the ring route of 2.5 to 3.5 km in length, full of obstacles of various kinds (fords, mud, ditches, hills, etc.);
– Biker cross, parallel to the slalom – simultaneous descent of several riders, providing for the possibility of contact fighting;
– Downhill – downhill.
In addition, you should mention cycling competitions in figure skating and cycling – playing ball on bicycles.
The first bicycle was invented in Germany.
Indeed, officially the date of “birth” of a bicycle is considered to be the year 1814, when German forest ranger Karl von Dreis from Mannheim built a wooden two-wheeled bicycle (on which a person could ride in any direction, pushing his feet off the ground). The patent for this invention was issued in 1817. However, there are references to the fact that in 1800 the serf master Yefim Mikheevich Artamonov created an “outlandish bicycle” at one of Nizhny Tagil’s factories, where in 1801 he traveled more than 5,000 kilometers off-road to Moscow. For this invention, the craftsman was given freedom, but the vehicle was not patented.
The invention of tires made cycling much more comfortable.
This is indeed so. The first bicycles, not equipped with tires, were called “kostotryasami.” Because in 1885, veterinarian Denlop of Scotland, wishing to make the vehicle more comfortable for his son, adapted a rubber rubber sleeve used for watering flowers to the wheels of the “kostotryas”. Filling the hose with water, the inventor reduced the shaking to a minimum, but the speed of the bike also greatly decreased. Then the resourceful doctor pumped new tires with air, providing them with a special valve. Modern athletes sometimes use helium for inflating tires, which allows them to develop a slightly higher speed and, accordingly, to show better results in competitions.
In the sprint, it does not matter where the racer is.
In fact, the best position is the place behind the enemy’s back. In this case, it will not be easy for the opponent to calculate the maneuvers of the athlete behind him.Sometimes the front racer tries to balance for a while on the bike, reducing the speed to enable the opponent to lead the race. However, the second driver does the same, waiting for the opponent’s mistake. This state of things, called “surprise” (from the French surplace – “in place”) sometimes dragged on for an hour, but these days there is a restriction on the above maneuver – no more than 3 minutes.
любой For any subspecies of races over rough terrain any mountain bike will do.
This is not quite true. You should clearly define what exactly you are going to do, ask what requirements for the used vehicle are put forward by one or another discipline, and only then choose the appropriate vehicle. After all, for example, for cross country, the main advantage of a bicycle is low weight, and in downhill the mechanical strength of a structure and good shock absorbers are the most important.
Mountain biking is the most universal for most people.
This vehicle is quite specific, and not very effective for driving on highways or dirt roads. The most universal is considered a bicycle of the “cross” type, which is not bad showing itself both in driving on roads and off-road.
Disc brakes are the main advantage of a good bike.
Indeed, the disc brakes are better than the hoods, and they last longer, and the braking force is dosed more precisely. However, it should be noted that the aforementioned advantages are really important only during competitions, at high speeds. In ordinary life, a person may not notice the difference. In addition, it should be noted that a bicycle equipped with a rear disc brake is difficult to install the trunk, and this purchase will not be cheap at all – you’ll have to pay at least 300-400 cu for a bicycle. If you are offered a cheaper model – be careful, maybe the vehicle is not quite right.
You should definitely buy a bicycle with metal pedals.
This myth was born in those times when the products of Soviet bicycle factories were equipped with really very poor quality plastic pedals that quickly became useless. The same quality was the pedals of cheap Chinese bicycles, literally flooded the market at the end of the last century. However, it should be remembered that modern bicycles from well-known manufacturers are equipped with excellent plastic pedals that will serve you faithfully for several years. Therefore, when buying a bicycle, you should pay attention not to the pedal, but to the brand of the manufacturer.
For a good bike will have to pay a fairly large amount – no less than 300 cu.
It all depends on why you are purchasing this vehicle. For example, a walking bicycle can be bought for about 150-200 USD. Multi-speed walking bike will cost a little more – 250-350 USD. If you want to buy a vehicle for tourism or sports – then really have to fork out.
Chinese bicycles are not qualitative, so it’s best to buy vehicles manufactured in Europe or America.
This myth came into being thanks to enterprising businessmen who bought bicycles (more precisely, bicycle models) in China at a price of $ 10. and sold in domestic markets at a much higher price (200 – 300 cu). This product, to put it mildly, not high quality, gave rise to the misconception that Chinese bicycles are not good. However, it should be noted that Taiwan is one of the world centers of high technologies, and leading bicycle manufacturers have placed their production in Asian countries, in particular in China. It is there that about 70% of bicycles are produced, and of very high quality. The remaining 30% are collected in Europe and America, and, more often, from components produced again in Asian countries.
You should use the rear brake, the front brake is dangerous.
This is not so, especially if you want to learn how to quickly and safely overcome steep slopes. It is the front brake that is designed to slow the bicycle down. The rear function – restraint of the rear wheel, thereby improving handling on corners. Particularly important is the ability to use both the front and rear brakes in downhill.
You can not get off the locked wheels.
Indeed, down the rocky or earthen hill will not come down. But for the descent through deep snow or sand dunes, this technique is quite applicable.
Biking improves health.
Indeed, this sport has a positive effect on the state of human health (for example, it improves metabolism, speeds up metabolism, promotes weight loss), but if you decide to pursue cycling or cycling (especially extreme) seriously, or even professionally – pay attention to some important points. First, riding a bicycle makes high demands on the musculoskeletal and ligament apparatus of the shoulder girdle, spine and legs, as the load during movement is distributed unevenly, and the constant vibration and static position of the trunk after a certain period of time can become a source of quite unpleasant sensations . Secondly, cycling itself is a wonderful training for the vestibular apparatus. But if you have problems with coordination of movements for some reason – from cycling (and even more so freeride or downhill) will have to be abandoned, limiting ourselves to only small bike tours at a moderate speed. Thirdly, with a loss of balance (which sometimes can not be maintained even by experienced athletes) an unprepared person can get bruises, and even fractures. Therefore, intending to learn cycling or extreme cycling, you should critically assess your health, always consult with a specialist. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to a complex of exercises 2-3 months before the campaign or competitions, strengthening the muscles of the hands, legs, back and shoulder girdle.
One wheel can be passed while sitting in the saddle of a bicycle.
No, to successfully ride a surf (another name is a manual), the rider must stand on the pedals, slightly moving his body to the rear wheel. Ideally, the surf should be performed without the participation of brakes, but at the beginning of the finger on the brake handle still should be kept. At the same time, you will have to balance not only immediately after pulling (ie transition to balancing on one wheel), but also throughout the surf using the legs (bending and unbending them at the right moment) and steering wheel. Beginners are best to train, leaving the hill – in this case, it becomes possible to drive a surf quite a long distance.
It is best to perform a jump (especially from a height of about a meter or more) to the sand – it will self-punch the blow.
Yes, but it should be noted that most of the speed is lost. Inexperienced riders are best to jump (drops) from a great height to the ground – it is softer than asphalt. To amortize the landing is quite capable of a wide tire with not too high pressure. In addition, remember: the locked rear wheel is a guarantee of an extremely hard landing.
If, after passing the distance on a bicycle, the athlete reduces the leg, you need to pinch the muscle, and in between the competitions there are bananas (calcium gluconate, foods rich in potassium, etc.).
Actually, it’s not so simple. After all, the cause of seizures can be, for example, thyroid disease, flat feet, metabolic disorders in the muscles, heart disease, varicose veins, mineral deficiencies, leg fatigue, and excessive sweating, during which the body loses magnesium, sodium, potassium and calcium.Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to find out the cause of seizures, and only then to seek methods of treatment.
If convulsions occur simply because of loss of fluid and nutrients released with sweat, experts advise you to drink an isotonic drink or any saline solution (a teaspoon of table salt to a glass of water).
Preparations containing potassium and calcium should be taken with caution, since excess mineral salts in the body can lead to even more unpleasant consequences than their deficiency. It is best to eat foods rich in the necessary mineral substances: beans, cereals and cottage cheese contain calcium, potatoes and bananas – potassium, seeds, yoghurts and nuts are rich in magnesium, etc. However, even in this it is necessary to know the measure – for example, an excessive amount of bananas can provoke kidney cancer. In the event that the convulsions have already begun, and there is no glass with saline solution at hand, it is necessary to straighten the leg and pull the toes on yourself together with the foot, pinch for the sore spot, and then stand on the jointed leg. Then you should massage the sore spot, rubbing it with your hands. Before training (especially if you are going to ride down the street in frosty weather) it is necessary to use warming ointments, applying them to the most often reducible places.
To win the competition, you need to train as much as possible.
This is not quite true. The key to winning can be not just long, but, rationally constructed training, the main purpose of which is to improve those qualities that are necessary for victory in a particular discipline of cycling. In any case, the training should be regular, the load should be increased gradually, in addition, the coach must take into account the individual characteristics of each athlete, and the athlete himself must monitor his state of health, accordingly, correcting the plans for classes.
It is best during cycling classes to give preference to isotonic drinks of famous manufacturers.
Sports (isotonic) drinks, sometimes mistakenly termed erogotnikami, were developed in 1960 in one of the universities of the State of Florida solely for the needs of the university football team “Gators” – to protect athletes from dehydration arising during the game. After a while, the drink, which allows you to easily replenish the supply of liquids, carbohydrates and salts during long physical exertions, has become very popular all over the world. During sports competitions such drinks are really the most optimal means for replenishing the water-salt balance of the body, which prevents dehydration. However, one should be careful when choosing an isotonic. Carefully read the label on which the composition of the sports drink should be indicated. It can contain no more than 4-8% carbohydrates (about 10-19 g per glass), electrolytes (0.1% sodium and 0.03% potassium, and also magnesium, calcium, etc.) and water. Also, pay attention to the type of sugars used. It should be noted that, for example, fructose can cause some people to have an upset stomach, and it is digested somewhat more slowly. Therefore, it is preferable to prefer an isotonic with glucose or sucrose. Professional athletes, especially in hot weather, follow such rules for drinking fluids: 2-3 glasses should be drunk 2 hours before the match, 1 glass – 15 minutes before the race (you can also add a couple of salt crackers if there is no tendency to increased pressure). During the competition half a cup of liquid should be consumed every 15 minutes, and, at the end of the event, you must drink at least 3-6 glasses of liquid. This allows riders to reliably protect the body from dehydration, heat stroke and other troubles of this kind.
Sportsmen-cyclists should completely abandon the use of alcohol.
Indeed, alcohol is quite capable of having a negative effect on the body, because, firstly, it serves as a source of useless calories, which are poorly absorbed by the body; second, it helps to increase the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood (which significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases), can provoke an increase in blood pressure, lead to a heart attack and liver damage. In addition, it should be remembered that alcohol has diuretic properties, therefore, used before or after exercise increases dehydration, reduces energy reserves, slows down the subtle motor abilities. However, all of the above concerns only alcohol, used in large doses. And in moderate amounts, alcohol may well be one of the components of a sports diet for adults. It should be remembered that for each conventional portion of alcohol should have a large glass of water. In addition, it must be taken into account that the rate of splitting of alcohol depends on the athlete’s constitution. For example, the body of tall men of athletic or dense physique is able to split an hour or so of a shot of alcohol, while men of lesser makeup and fair-sex representatives will have to spend much more time neutralizing the same amount of hot drinks.