Cultural experts associate cultural illusions with distortions in the picture of life, which is formed in the mind of a person by the ordinary prejudices existing around him, the peculiarities of the culture existing in his locality, and the activities of all possible political strategists.
психологи One of the main features of a mature person (mature on a personal level) psychologists call his ability to live comfortably alone. The state of loneliness, which is not restrained psychologically, implies the normal psychologically formed awareness of one’s self, and the boundaries of this concept, that is, the real ability to distinguish between “oneself” and “not oneself,” and, most importantly, the ability to accept and realize “oneself” in reality without compensating for loneliness (complementing the existence) of objects.
M. Mahler established that for the first time, with the experience of one’s own loneliness, a person gets acquainted in early childhood, which happens, as a rule, at the end of the first or the beginning of the second year of his life. This occurs at a time when the child begins to realize his own existence separate from the mother, and also his own framework, that is, the limitation of his own abilities (in psychology this is called “psychological birth”).
In those cases where familiarity and awareness of reality was associated with unpleasant and traumatic moments for the psyche, a person in the future will not be able to exist alone alone, psychologists suggest that this is due to the fact that reality has invaded the boundaries of his “I” prematurely.
Such psychological traumas can arise even in infancy, if the child was subjected to excessive stimulation from the outside in the very first days and weeks of his life, that is, in the same period when infants have a natural autistic condition. In the future, for such a person, the world can accept (for his consciousness) the quality of unpredictability. These people do not get from childhood experience, insuring his illusions of perception of the environment.
And without such a sense of peace for the person, loneliness is intolerable, accompanied by a feeling of anxiety, emptiness in the soul and a feeling of abandonment. The experience of illusions in childhood gives a person confidence in adequate perception in adulthood, fantasy childhood illusions are that sphere of human consciousness that in the future is filled with cultural illusions of various origins – religion, art, etc. If there is no competent replacement of these concepts, then child illusions can come from alcohol or drugs (as a subconscious desire to escape from the world, but not remain alone).
In a way, the whole of human culture is a product belonging to the sphere of illusions (Spengler). Civilization refers to the realm of reality (the achievements of science, production, modern technology). Culture is exactly the same insurance “belt” that warns a person’s consciousness from traumas of perception. Traditions, moral values, faith, art – this is all determined by the inner culture of man. It is necessary to distinguish clearly, culture is “inside” a person, and civilization exists outside the human personal “I”.
Nietzsche believed that in the 20th century the contradictions between culture and civilization, reality and illusion began, and Winnicott confirmed that faced with an unattractive reality, humanity began to lose illusions. The peoples of the north of Russia, whose perception of life was always closer to the children, were more affected than the children, in the place of the taken away cultural illusions (traditions, spirits of ancestors) came the general alcoholism.
The space of consciousness, not occupied by cultural illusions, is filled with depressions, psychosomatic states are so-called diseases of psychological loneliness, which are based on inner emptiness.Cultural differences that lie in the processes of perception by people around the world are determined by all ethnic conflicts without exception, so cultural illusions created by man lie in the plane of perception of events and phenomena depending on the cultural traditions that have developed in the environment of his residence. People of different cultures have different ways of assimilating, perceiving and interpreting phenomena and objects.
Very brightly described this difference in cultural illusions Kuprin in his tale “The Blue Star” on the example of the perception of the tribe of external beauty, living away from the civilized world, they considered their own ugliness – beauty and vice versa. People of different races perceive people of different races differently, for them they all seem to be the same person.
The experiment conducted by American psychologists was aimed at perceiving the children of Hindus, Americans and Muslims living in India, persons who cause associations or with punishment, or with praise and reward. The children of Hindus and Muslims were perceived to a greater extent by persons who caused them to associate punishment, and Americans – praise and rewards.
The issue of differences in the perception of illusions in different cultures is very complex, because personal or cultural illusions are subjective concepts. Psychologists from different countries conducted a large number of cross-cultural studies, using for their studies the classic illusion of Mueller-Lyayer – the optical illusion that occurs when observing the segments bordered by arrows. The illusion consists in the perception of a segment framed by arrows with “points” shorter than a segment framed by arrows with “tails”.
The nature of this illusion until our time to the end still could not be determined. Cultural illusion of man. who lived all his life in a country dominated by the architecture of the “circle”, for example the Zulu (tribe in Africa) is absolutely different from the illusion created in the mind of an American or a European, since the Zulu round houses, rounded doors, fields are plowed up in semicircles.
In the experiment conducted with the Zulus, psychologists have revealed that they perceive in both Müller-Lyer illusions both segments of the same length. That is, the concept of cultural illusion does not simply exist, but dominates in the perceptions of people of different countries and cultures.
Representatives of different cultures have different motivations in the perception of certain objects, and various ways of perception, that is, cultural illusions that arise in the mind of a person, are more dependent on the cultural environment and human education.
To date, the concept of the connection of illusions with culture has been little studied, the only thing in which all psychologists of different countries converge, this in connection with cultural effects with the paradigms of optical illusion, there is a connection between the processes of perception in diverse life situations and optical illusions in people belonging to different cultures. In addition, today, scientists conduct research in the study of the connection of cultural illusions with the internal (personal) culture of man.
The fact is that culture has a direct impact on the creation of illusory images, since people with different backgrounds and education differently perceive, process and transform any information they receive from the same source. Cognition means on the psychological level the totality of mental processes through which sensory sensations, information received at the sensory level, are transformed into knowledge.
These processes consist of perception, rational thinking and reasoning, language, memory, problem solving, decision making, etc. The basic processes that determine cultural illusions are categorization and, as a consequence, the formation of concepts, memory, recognition of persons, the ability to solve problems, the propensity to make decisions and the creative creativity.
Issues of perception, cognition and consciousness are at the heart of most of the psychological conclusions, and the differences in culture in these processes assume different levels of psychology that are subject to cultural impact. And since a person’s consciousness is able to reflect only his subjective perception of surrounding objects or phenomena, people are sure that everyone has the same consciousness, although in reality there are serious cultural and personal, individual differences.