is a state in Southern Europe. The area of Croatia is about fifty-six and a half thousand square kilometers. A significant part of the territory of Croatia on the mainland, in addition, the state belongs to the Istrian peninsula.
Along the coast there are one thousand one hundred and eighty-five islands and islets. The largest are Mljet, Korcula, Brac, Hvar, Pag, Cres, Krk. The Adriatic Sea is washed by the western part of the country.
The city of Zagreb is the capital of Croatia. Croatian is recognized as an official language, but German is also spoken. On the peninsula of Istria, it is convenient for many to communicate in Italian.
In Croatia, Catholic faith prevails (it is professed by more than seventy-six percent of the population). Approximately eleven percent of the population are Catholics, one percent are Muslims, and one and a half percent are Protestants.
The Croatian kuna is the monetary unit of the state. According to the form of government, Croatia is a unitary state, in the form of state government – a republic. Since 2001, Sabor is functioning in Croatia – a unicameral parliament with legislative powers.
In the period from 1991 to 2001, the parliament was bicameral. The President is the head of the country and is elected for a term of five years. On 20 December 1990, Croatia adopted a constitution, from Yugoslavia the country became independent in June 1991, and some amendments were made to the Constitution (in particular, on the reform of the parliament).
According to the administrative division, Croatia consists of twenty regions (counties), one hundred and twenty-two cities and four hundred twenty-four communities. The city of Zagreb has the status of the twenty-first county.
The population of Croatia is four million seven hundred thousand people. The national composition of the country is rather motley: Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins, Albanians, Slovenes and other peoples live on its territory. The share of Croats in the total population according to the 2001 census was 89.6%.
Croatia has a unique Mediterranean climate. This fact is the reason for the popularity of this country in the eyes of European tourists.
Moreover, doctors recognize Croatia as the preferred place of rest in the summer months for Russians (the reason is the same favorable climate). The average air temperature in the summer varies from thirty to thirty-one degrees, water – from twenty-five to twenty-seven degrees.
The international airport of the Croatian capital is located seventeen kilometers from the city center. Dubrovnik Airport is located eighteen kilometers from the city, a bus for twenty minutes will bring people to the center.
The city of Zagreb is the capital of Croatia.
Locals affectionately call their city no other than “thousand-year old Zagreb”. Once unifying two cities (Gradz and Kaptol), Zagreb now has a huge territory. Until now, a significant part of the medieval Zagreb has been preserved. 1093 was marked by the first mention of the city. The main Croatian city of Zagreb is from the middle of the sixteenth century, this event was largely promoted by the advantageous geographical position of Zagreb. Now Zagreb consists of two parts: the Lower City and occupying the north-eastern part of the Upper City. The lower city is modern Zagreb, and the Upper City personifies its history and is represented by many old buildings. The population of the Croatian capital is approximately one million people. The symbol of the city is the Cathedral. Getting acquainted with Zagreb is preferable to begin with the Old City, in this case the tourist can inhale the unique atmosphere of the Croatian capital, which is permeated with the spirit of antiquity and inexorable modernity.Among the main attractions of Zagreb: the Mimara Museum, the National Theater, the Archbishop’s Palace, the Church of St. Catherine, the stone gate of the thirteenth century, the zoological and botanical gardens, the Town Hall, etc. You can taste local dishes in cafes and restaurants. All of them have a common name for “Zagorian cuisine”.
The city of Zagreb has a beautiful legend of the origin of its name.
One of the local legends, indeed, is about the next event. Once the Croatian detachment set out on a military campaign. However, the soldiers needed rest. The leader of the squad forcefully thrust his sword into the ground at a halt (and this happened just on the territory of the present Zagreb). In the place where the sword entered the ground, immediately a fountain filled with cold water. The water was long awaited, so the leader commanded his soldiers to “rake” her. There is another version of the origin of the name of the city “Zagreb”. In translation from Old Croatian language “zagreb” is translated as “fortification, fortification, embankment”. Probably, the city received its name in honor of the ancient fortification.
To visit Croatia, Russians will need a visa.
Far from it. Entry to Croatia for citizens of the Russian Federation is visa-free, at the border, you must present either a tourist voucher or an invitation. Neither entering the country, nor leaving it to provide any kind of declaration is not necessary.
Croatia is an ecologically clean country.
Her ecology is recognized as one of the best in the world. By the way, on a par with the amazingly beautiful nature. Over the past years, the country receives the Blue Flag from the special commission of UNESCO. Transparency of water is often fifty meters. Tropical plants grow next to the pine forests. However, not only the Adriatic coast is a pride of Croatia. This country is also famous for its mineral and thermal springs. On the territory of Croatia there are seven wonderful national parks.
The economy of Croatia is characterized by stable growth.
The most important branches of the economy for Croatia are the following: shipbuilding, textile, food, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, electrical, woodworking, machine building. Tourism is also not the least in the economic life of the country. The number of tourists who want to spend their holidays in Croatia, is growing every year. However, there are weaknesses in the Croatian economy. For example, a high unemployment rate, which is twenty percent.
Dalmatia is a historical area on the territory of Croatia.
Located on the Adriatic coast, much of Dalmatia occupies the territory of modern Croatia. The smaller part of Dalmatia is in the territory of Montenegro. Dalmatia itself is a seaside coastal belt, whose length is approximately four hundred kilometers, it is one of the oldest European geographic formations. The shores of Dalmatia and its thousand islands are washed by the Adriatic Sea. The territory of Dalmatia has concentrated on itself several specialized reserves, three natural parks and four national parks. The natural parks include Biokovo, Telashviva, Velebit. National parks – Mljet, Krka, Paklenica, Kornati.
In Croatia, the Mediterranean climate.
For Central Croatia, there is a mountainous and semi-mountainous climate, in the northern part of the country the continental climate predominates, while the Mediterranean climate is typical only for the coastal part of Croatia. Winter temperatures vary significantly depending on the area. If in the coastal regions the average temperature in the cold season is about five degrees Celsius with a plus sign, in Central Croatia it reaches thirty degrees Celsius with a minus sign.The average summer temperatures on the coast range from twenty-six to thirty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, on the continent – from twenty to twenty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, and finally in mountain areas – usually from fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius with a plus sign.
Croatian cuisine is not diverse.
On the contrary, it is very diverse and rich, so everyone will like it. Croatian cuisine is built from both domestic and borrowed recipes. Many of the international dishes in Croatia are already recognized as domestic. Cooking of many islands is unique. What is the only dish “visovachke belavitsa.” Its basis is a young lamb. The dish is prepared using sour sheep’s milk. In general, the national cuisine of this country is recognized as a true masterpiece in the history of culinary arts. The features of nutrition in general and cooking in particular are dictated by climatic, natural and historical characteristics, and not only the condition for the availability of certain products. The rich historical past of Croatia could not but affect its culinary traditions. According to the five main Croatian regions, national cuisine is also divided into five branches. One of these varieties is Dalmatian cuisine (Dalmatia region). The most interlacing of different culinary habits was reflected in the cooking of the capital of Croatia – the city of Zagreb. One of the common culinary traditions for all of Croatia is cooking under a cast-iron hood – “from under the pitch.” Since ancient times, locals have prepared in this way, for example, the meat of a young calf or octopus.
Wines are a pride of Croatia.
You can talk about them in the first place. The palette of Croatian wines is very wide – only high-quality wines there are more than seven hundred. Among other beverages that are popular in this country (alcoholic and nonalcoholic): mineral waters and juices, beer and brandy. In the south of Croatia you can taste the “bevand”. This is a special drink, prepared by mixing red wine with water. In the north of Croatia you can enjoy “gemisht”. This drink is a cocktail of dry white wines. True, this cocktail is also diluted with mineral water. Dry wines are a special pride of Croatia. In the north of the country white wines are more revered, and in the south – red wines.
Vegetable products are the basis of Dalmatian cuisine.
Despite this, fish and seafood are always an integral part of it. Dishes from sea products, as a rule, are served on the table either in fried form or in cooked form. Dalmatian (and Croatian in general) cuisine is distinguished by a commitment to healthy eating: boiled dishes are preferred to fried. Food is prepared in olive oil with the addition of various condiments.
особые Special culinary researches are characteristic for the region of Istria.
The cuisine of this region has absorbed elements of cooking in some of the interior and coastal areas. This variety of Croatian cuisine takes as its basis fresh fruits and vegetables. Fish and seafood (which, as a rule, either are baked on open fire, or cooked), seasoned with herbs, seasonings and cooked in olive oil. Seafood varied: oysters, shrimps, seashells, squid, and of course, fish. The following characteristic feature of Istria is the richness of the choice of cheeses and cold snacks made on their basis. The first dishes are also unique. For their preparation, the same fish is usually used. dishes are served to the table with cheese, olives and smoked ham.
Croatia is a country of festivals.
A huge number of different festivities and festivals are held throughout the year. April is commemorated by the “Musical Biennale” – a festival held in the Croatian capital. In Zagreb there is also an exhibition of flowers “Flora-Art”, Festival of cartoons, Philharmonic Festival of St.Mark (all these holidays in June), international Jazz Days in October and many other festive events. In February, the holiday of St. Blaze, the Carnival are held in Dubrovnik, and the middle of summer is celebrated here by the international summer festival rich in various representations.
The most popular sport in Croatia is football.
Of course it is. The formation of this sport in the country took place at the beginning of the twentieth century: the Croatian Football Federation was formed in 1912. Currently, the country takes part in cups of the European Cup, has its own national team, since 1998 the Croatian national football team is recognized as one of the world famous football forces.
Croatia has a well developed railway transport.
It is possible to get to Croatia from almost any European country by rail. Internally the railway communication is also well established.
Taxi is the most common type of public transport in Croatia.
It is not, because it is a bus. In Zagreb and Osijek, the bus shares the superiority with the tram. The ticket costs about sixty-five cents. They can be bought either in newspaper kiosks, or directly in the salon. For one dollar seventy-five cents you can buy a day ticket for all modes of transport. Taxi – a less common form of transport, but still quite popular. One trip in the city will cost about five to eight dollars. The final cost is obtained by adding several tariffs: almost two and a half dollars for landing, almost one dollar for each kilometer of the journey, about fifteen cents for luggage. From ten o’clock in the evening till five o’clock in the morning the prices are twenty percent higher than the rest of the day. More expensive trip and on holidays.
There are good roads in Croatia.
On the contrary, their condition leaves much to be desired. Croatia is currently paying special attention to the development of road infrastructure. Behind the wheel has the right to sit down a person who has insurance and documents for the car, and, of course, a driver’s license. On the highways you can speed up to one hundred and thirty kilometers per hour, outside the settlements – up to eighty kilometers per hour, and in their line – up to fifty kilometers per hour.
In Croatia, there are several airports of international importance.
There are six of them. They are located in the following cities: Zagreb, Split, Dubrovnik, Pula, Zadar and Rijeka. Zagreb International Airport is located seventeen kilometers from the central part of the Croatian capital, you can reach the main bus station by bus, which depart from the airport every half hour, and also by taxi. The international airport of Split is located twenty-four kilometers from its center. There are regular buses between the airport and the center of Split. The international airport of Dubrovnik is located eighteen kilometers from it, by bus you can get to the center in twenty minutes.
Tourism is one of the promising areas of economic life in Croatia.
Numerous islands, and indeed the coast of the Adriatic Sea, have this. It should be noted that already in the nineteenth century, tourism began to develop here, as regards the twentieth century, at that time the Croatian coast was leading in the socialist world in terms of the development of tourist destinations. And although the nineties of the twentieth century were marked by a decline in Croatian tourism, with the beginning of the new millennium, this industry began to develop very rapidly. A significant number of tourists agree that in Croatia it is preferable to have a rest either in the summer or in September. A huge number of excursions and relaxation on the beach will satisfy the taste of any tourist.
Croatia is the country of many natural attractions.
The main natural attraction of this country is the Adriatic coast itself and approximately one thousand one hundred and eighty-five islands and small islands located along it. Of course, all seven national parks of this country also belong to the natural masterpieces. Three national parks are located on the coastal islands. These are Mljet, Kornati and Brijuni. The natural monuments protected by UNESCO include Split, Dubrovnik, Plitvice Lakes. The most popular resorts are Dubrovnik, Makarska Riviera, Split, Primosten, Kvarner Riviera, as well as the cities of the peninsula Istria (Rovinj, Umag, Pula, Porec and others).
Getting to Croatia is best from Dubrovnik.
This city is very famous in the Adriatic – largely due to the preserved to this day medieval fortress. Not only is this fortress unusually beautiful in itself, so its walls are also met by the impacts of sea waves. Dubrovnik is located in South Dalmatia. Dubrovnik can be proud of its stunning architecture and rich historical heritage. Summer holidays in Dubrovnik are planned by many European tourists. Dubrovnik was founded in the seventh century. At that time the city was surrounded by a stone wall. Serious damage to the city was caused by the war between the Croats and Serbs in 1991. Bombing destroyed a significant part of the historical heritage, especially the architecture suffered. Currently, Dubrovnik is fully restored and attracts numerous tourists. First of all, it boasts deep bays and bays inland. No less attention deserves masterpieces created by man. Among the main attractions of the city are the Sponza Palace (the sixteenth century), the Gothic Palace of the Rector (the fifteenth century), the Onofrio Fountain (built in 1438), the City Belltower (rebuilt in 1929), the Dominican Monastery (built in 1301).
Mlini is a cozy resort town in Croatia.
The name of this resort town was given the word “mill”. Mlini is located ten kilometers south of Dubrovnik, twelve kilometers from the airport. Mlini is proud of its excellent finely pebbly beaches. Along the sea stretches a beautiful path a few kilometers long. Local attractions include St. Roca and built in 1449, the church of St. Gillarion. From Mlini To Dubrovnik you can get either by bus or by boat. The bus ride will last about twenty-five minutes, traveling by tourist boats is about thirty-five minutes. Mlini – an excellent resort of Dubrovnik, is rightly recognized as one of the best in the district. Bars, restaurants, excellent hotels and hotels – all this is an integral part of the resort of Mlini.
Opatija is a unique Croatian resort.
He has no analogues in the whole country. The fact is that from the Istrian peninsula the resort is bordered by Uchka mountain. The height of this mountain is one thousand three hundred meters. The city is replete with parks, in which grow various subtropical trees: bamboo, palm trees, magnolias and others. Exotic plants grow unhindered in parks in view of the fact that the average air temperature in Opatija is an order of magnitude higher than in nearby areas. As a resort, Opatija became in 1844. It was then on its territory was built the first villa of Angiolina. From this year, Opatija received members of royal families and many celebrities. During its formation, the city grew around the Benedictine monastery. Actually from the monastery (the monastery) the city got its name. The tourist symbol of Opatia is the flowers of Japanese camellia, which blossom with the arrival of spring. The picturesque town is comfortably located at the foot of Uchka Mountain.
Health tourism is one of the promising areas of Opatija.
This is facilitated by the climatic features of the area and, of course, the activities of famous doctors.This feature also increases the popularity of Opatija in the eyes of European tourists. In order to restore and improve their health here in due time came AP Chekhov, Franz Joseph I, Wilhelm II and many other famous people’s stories. In Opatija there is an atmosphere of preservation of cultural traditions, here the modernity and history miraculously intertwine. For example, some hotels in Opatija are located in historical buildings of the nineteenth century. This fact, however, does not prevent to serve tourists at the modern excellent level, to provide all opportunities to receive quality treatment and fully rest.
Poreč is the center of the historical heritage of Croatia.
It is located fifty kilometers north of Pula. Indeed, this Croatian city has preserved to this day many historical monuments. In addition, the city of Porec is the center of cultural traditions of Croatia. The city center of this unique city still reflects the layout of the Roman streets. The city became famous for the development of tourism, because already in the middle of the nineteenth century Porec had a tourist guide. Historical and tourist beginnings “neighbor” with each other, because the historical core of Poreč is able to satisfy the curious tourist’s need surrounded by everything that is called the developed infrastructure of the resort. At present, tourists are attracted by the warm sea, gentle sun, wonderful beaches, pristine pine forests, beautiful embankments and a large number of small cafes and chic restaurants. Among other local attractions are Marafor – the preserved part of the Roman Forum, the Great Temple, the Temple of Neptune, the Basilica of St. Euphrasius, etc. The basilica of St. Euphrasius was erected in the first half of the sixth century on the ruins of an earlier basilica and is now a real gem of the city, more Moreover, it retained the most beautiful Byzantine mosaic.
Pula is the most mysterious Croatian city.
The reason for this is the rich history of this region – the first mention of the city is due to the legend of the Argonauts who founded the City of Refuges. A long history of the city is evidenced by a large number of items from archaeological excavations. They also talk about Pula’s connection with ancient Greek culture. One of the main attractions of Pula is the Arena amphitheater that has survived to the present day. Every year it hosts all kinds of festivals.