is an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder. The reason for its development is the introduction into the body of viruses, bacteria. The disease can have a parasitic nature.
Cholecystitis can be acute or chronic. Also distinguish between calculous and noncalculous cholecystitis. The first is associated with the formation in the gallbladder concrements (ie stones). They arise as a result of increased concentration and stagnation of bile in the gallbladder.
Signs of the pathology of the bladder include bouts of pain (hepatic colic), nausea, heaviness in the abdomen, belching, constipation.
The diagnosis of cholecystitis is based on ultrasound and laboratory studies. The latter in particular include a blood test for bilirubin and bile acids. Sometimes the patient also carries out an X-ray examination.
Cholecystitis is a common disease.
Among diseases of the digestive system it is really very common – in the world there is an increase in the number of patients with acute cholecystitis. Among all patients delivered to the surgical department, the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis takes the second place – immediately after acute appendicitis.
Many factors contribute to the development of cholecystitis.
Predisposing factors of this disease are the presence of parasites, diseases of the digestive tract, liver and gallbladder trauma, sedentary lifestyle, malnutrition (irregular meals or overeating), immune status disorders and some others. A special role in the development of cholecystitis is due to stasis of bile in the gallbladder, as well as the presence of a bacterial infection – when these factors combine, inflammation of the gallbladder occurs. Heredity also occupies a certain place among the factors that predetermine the development of cholecystitis.
Gallstone disease leads to the development of cholecystitis.
Rather, it contributes to the development of this disease, but does not necessarily lead to it. Often it is the presence in the gallbladder stones (especially in the elderly) provokes the development of a disease such as cholecystitis. However, if cholecystitis occurs at a young age, then most likely there is no cholelithiasis; However, it can develop in the case when the course of cholecystitis takes a long time. In addition to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis can be caused by the following diseases: gastritis, dyskinesia.
Microbes are pathogens of cholecystitis.
In most cases this is the case. Stimulants include streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, E. coli. These microbes enter the gallbladder through the bile ducts. Diseases caused by parasites (ascariasis, lamblia), can also serve as provoking factors for the development of cholecystitis.
Microbes enter the gallbladder through the intestine.
Not only through it. Disease-causing microorganisms are able to enter the gallbladder from distant foci of infection in certain diseases (for sinusitis, angina, etc.). in this case they enter the gallbladder with a current of lymph or blood.
Cholecystitis is a serious disease.
On him in no case can not give up and say: “Itself will pass!”. Cholecystitis must be treated. And the course of treatment is appointed by a specialist after carrying out all the required studies on the basis of which it is possible to identify the cause of the disease. If cholecystitis is not treated, then this disease can give serious complications that will pose a danger to the life of the patient.
There are two forms of cholecystitis.
Based on how this disease begins. They talk about acute cholecystitis (acute onset) and chronic cholecystitis (the onset of the disease is gradual).
Women are more predisposed to the development of acute cholecystitis.
In principle, people of different ages can have this disease. However, obese women (especially if they are more than fifty years old) have a risk of developing acute cholecystitis much higher than other categories of the population.
Acute cholecystitis is provoked by cholelithiasis.
The cause of the development of this disease, as a rule, is a blockage of the stone by bile ducts. But acute cholecystitis without accompanying cholelithiasis is much less common.
Colic in the right upper quadrant is a harbinger of an acute form of cholecystitis.
Basically, colic (a sudden attack of pain, having a cramping character) occurs after a while (usually a few hours) after eating (for example, a dense dinner). Its most probable cause is a blockage of the cystic duct with a stone. The duration of the attack varies from several minutes to several hours. A painful attack can pass without any medical action or still requires the introduction of antispasmodics.
Mechanical jaundice is a manifestation of acute cholecystitis.
It occurs in case of blockage of the common bile duct. As a result, the color of a person’s skin acquires a yellow tinge. It is not possible to feel deeply alive, since the abdominal muscles are strained. The abdomen is painful. This is the so-called “acute abdomen” sign. In this case, the patient must be delivered to the surgical department, where the specialist will make a choice of treatment.
Acute cholecystitis is treated surgically.
Not always. Delivering the patient to the surgical department, the doctor determines whether there is evidence for the operation. If they are not available, then bed rest, a certain diet is prescribed. Drug treatment includes antispasmodic and pain medications, if necessary, and antibiotics. Surgery is necessary in the case when the suspicion of complications of acute cholecystitis, in particular perforation of the gallbladder, is justified. Operative treatment includes the removal of the stone (which led to the obstruction of the ducts) or the entire gallbladder. In this regard, with an attack of acute cholecystitis, in no case should one take painkillers without the control of a specialist, as the picture of the disease may be smoothed out. The specialist can not always determine the moment of perforation of the gallbladder.
Acute cholecystitis leads to the development of chronic cholecystitis.
The statement can not be called completely correct, because although acute cholecystitis can go on into a chronic form, this does not always happen. Chronic cholecystitis in most cases occurs due to cholelithiasis (when the stones for a long period of time affect the walls of the gallbladder) – in this case they speak of calculous cholecystitis. But there are cases when chronic pancreatitis of stones in the gallbladder is not observed – cholecystitis in this case non-calculous.
Many signs indicate the onset of the development of chronic cholecystitis.
First, the patient has bitterness in his mouth. In the right upper quadrant, a person begins to feel pain and heaviness. Nausea, vomiting and burping also accompany the development of this disease.
Periodical exacerbations are characteristic of chronic cholecystitis.
The picture of the disease becomes similar to the appearance of acute cholecystitis. Exacerbations may occur after errors in the prescribed diet. Diseases of other organs, as well as physical activity can also provoke an exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis. To exacerbate the chronic form of the disease cholecystitis characterized by an increase in temperature, the increase of pain, vomiting. Exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis requires maintenance of bed rest and strict adherence to a diet. The latter should include a split food and a sparing diet, that is, the food should be cooked for a couple, skimmed foods – in a boiled form).
Chronic cholecystitis is treated conservatively.
To say that in the chronic form of cholecystitis surgical treatment is not required, it is erroneous.Surgical treatment of calculous cholecystitis (since not yet invented medicamental methods, with the help of which it would be possible to dissolve the already formed stones). Non-calculous cholecystitis operative intervention, as a rule, does not require. Exceptions are complicated forms of noncalculous cholecystitis. If the doctor made a decision about the conservative treatment of chronic cholecystitis, then it should be aimed at eliminating the inflammatory process, eliminating stagnation of bile. The purpose of treatment is also to restore the normal functioning of the biliary tract.
Cholecystectomy was first performed at the end of the nineteenth century.
Namely, June 5, 1882. The German physician K. Langenbuch performed the world’s first operation to remove the gallbladder. True, the positive results of the operation by many contemporaries of this doctor were called purely random. And in response to Langenbuch’s report at the Belgian Medical Academy, a significant number of listeners began to object to this operation. Now cholecystectomy is performed quite often (its goal is not only the removal of the gallbladder, but also the guarantee that bile will go unimpeded into the duodenum) and helps many people continue to lead a normal life.
Prophylaxis of chronic cholecystitis includes many components.
Basically, they are elementary and go out of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Everyone should eat right, lead a mobile lifestyle, provide themselves with a full sleep, and so on. Also an important factor is the timely treatment of acute cholecystitis (if this disease occurs).
Lemon has a beneficial effect on the condition of the gallbladder.
Lemon is one of the supporting agents. Alternative medicine says that using the following prescription it is possible to release the gallbladder from stagnant bile. It is necessary to mix the juice of one lemon with one and a half liters of water. Such a composition is used to purify the body with an enema. Treatment is carried out once a week. The cholagogue means the following composition: lemon, minced garlic (3 cloves) passed through the meat grinder – this mass should be mixed with three tablespoons of honey. Take two tablespoons on an empty stomach as needed.