Chiffchaff



(or real chiffchaff) belong to the family of chamomile and are united in the genus of small insectivorous birds. The area of ​​distribution of foams covers the territories of Africa, Asia and Europe, but the greatest biological diversity is observed in the territories of East Asia.

Together with the family of painted feather-hens, the genus of real chamois was singled out in a separate family only in 2006. At the present stage, this genus includes about fifty-five species, but there is a possibility that the classification of several species will be revised.


Chiffchaff

Real chamois live mainly in coniferous and deciduous forests. Fifteen kinds of small foxes are found on the territory of Russia.

Most types of chimneys build their nests directly on the earth’s surface. The nest, as a rule, has the shape of a shalash and is endowed with a side exit. Only the female participates in the construction of the nest. The basis of the diet of foams is small insects, which birds extract in the crowns of trees.

Foam – small birds.

Besides having a slender physique. The length of their body varies from ten to fourteen centimeters.

Different types of chiffchaffes are similar in lifestyle.

Nesting characteristics, nature of food, etc. in representatives of different species of chiffchaffs, in reality have many common features. A considerable part of the time the chiffchaffs spend flailing from one branch to another, that is almost always they are in the crown of trees. It is interesting that males devote a lot of time to singing during the day. At the same time they climb to the very tops of the trees.

Foam – brightly colored birds.

Conversely, the color palette of the coloring of their plumage is very non-contrast. Fuchs are painted in almost imperceptible colors. Moreover, the representatives of many species of the genus of real foxes are very similar to each other. Plumage, as a rule, is brown, green or yellow. The absence of sexual dimorphism in coloring is characteristic of all foam trees. The color of plumage does not differ in adults and young individuals. The tail of the feathers has twelve large feathers.

Fur coats are inhabitants of deciduous forests.

Most species of real chiffchaffus live in deciduous and coniferous forests. However, there are species whose representatives can be found at a height where there are no trees. Such species are recorded in the Asian territories.

Small insects enter the diet of foams.

They form the basis of the diet. Fenoks feed on bedbugs, aphids, flies, mosquitoes, beetles, as well as their eggs and larvae. In addition, the diet is diversified by spiders and berries. Food of chiffchaff is caught on the fly or found on branches, needles and leaves.

Foals are very moving birds.

They search the crowns of bushes and trees throughout the day. Tiredly, chiffchaffs search for food, the size of their prey (usually spiders and insects) does not often exceed one centimeter. The diet of foams includes aphids, whose body length is approximately two grams, and weight – about one milligram. The nature has perfectly adapted foam trees to collect insects in the crowns of trees and has endowed them with the necessary energy. It should be noted that despite the fact that all the chiffchaffes are very restless (constantly jump in a hurry from one branch to another, flutter inside the crown of a bush or tree), the methods of hunting in different species are not identical. Some chiffchaffas prefer to hunt in the crowns of deciduous trees, others – conifers, and still others do not have a predilection for anything. Moreover, some chamois hunt in the depth of the crown, others feed on the periphery.

Chiffchaff

Fixings settle their nests on the ground.

Not always. The nests of these birds can also be located either at an average height on a tree, or directly above the earth’s surface (in tall grass, bushes or stumps). But most types of crows build nests all the same directly on the ground. The nests of the chamois are closed and have a side exit.As a rule, the nest is made in the form of a hut. Its construction is handled by a female, she also incubates a clutch. The masonry consists of three to eight eggs. Eggs have either a purely white surface, or reddish or brownish specks are visible on a white background.

The rat-rattle is a small but beautiful bird.

The length of the rat-rattle body varies between twelve and fourteen centimeters. The length of the wing is about seven centimeters. The weight of the chiffon barely reaches ten grams. As for beauty, the individuals of this species are also painted as unpretentiously as representatives of other species. The abdominal side of the body has a white color, which is somewhat different in the yellow on the sides and on the front side of the neck. Dorsal side – yellow-green. Above the eye there is a brow bright yellow. It is worth noting that, thanks to the latest feature, chiffchaff-ratchet is often called chiffchaff.

The rat-rattle nests in the European territories.

The exception is the extremely southern and northern regions of Europe. Rattles-ratchets are migratory birds – for the winter they go to the northern part of equatorial Africa. departure early. By the end of October, chaff-rattle has already arrived at wintering grounds. In Middle Europe, individuals of this species arrive around the end of April, and at the nesting places the first appear males. They look for the right parts and start singing – their song is jerky and short. It should be noted that the song ends with a crackling trill, for which, apparently, this chiffchaff got its name. As a rule, the male starts the song on the branch of one tree, and finishes already on the branch of the other.

The rat-rattle builds a nest on the ground.

This is the only option for the location of the nest for individuals of this species. The nest is always in the immediate vicinity of the clearing or the edge. What is characteristic of all the foam trees, only the female participates in the construction of the nest. Building materials for the nest are large woolen, horsehair, dry stems of forest cereals, etc. The nest of chamois-ratchet is quite similar to the nest of the chiffchaff-vesnichki. The difference lies in the size (in the chiffchaff-spring it is smaller) and the absence of feather-wool in the nest of feathers in the litter. Masonry contains, as a rule, from five to seven eggs (accounted for in May or June). The white surface of the eggs is covered with variegated purple or violet shades. The female incubates eggs for thirteen days, after which, for another twelve days, she feeds the newly born chicks. Feed the offspring of the female helps the male, which in general is characteristic of all kinds of chiffchaff. Surprisingly, in one day the parents together make up to four hundred arrivals to the nest, each time bringing food to the chicks. After the chicks fly out of the nest, they still receive food from their parents for a whole week.

Feng-spring is a typical representative of the Central Russian forests.

This is so. Vesnichka lives on the territories of Europe and Siberia. The exception is the southern European regions, as well as the extreme north and southeast of Siberia. The dorsal side of the body of the chamois-vesnichki has olive-gray color, and the main tone of the ventral side is white. Nadhvoste dark. Females-vesnichki have a slender physique. The body length reaches fourteen and a half centimeters. The length of the wing varies from sixty to seventy four millimeters. Weight is about ten grams.

Femme-vesnichka is a migratory bird.

Its wintering areas include Arabia, Asia and South Africa. To places of nesting foamy arrive in different ways. If we are talking about the northern parts of the nesting range, then individuals of this species fly there only with the onset of summer. At the same time birds cover a distance of ten thousand kilometers in two or three months. If we are talking about the southern regions, then you can see the chaff in mid-March. The first to the nesting site are the males of spring chicks.Nests of this species nest in mountainous and lowland forests. In this case, the vesicles give preference to thickets along the banks of rivers, forest cannons and clearings, felling with young growth, deciduous plantations, and so on. Inhabitants of the tundra and mountain landscapes settle in shrub thickets. Having found the required place, the male sings songs from dawn to dusk, which consist of melodic, clean, pleasant whistles. The song is smooth and short. A little later a female takes a place in the place chosen by the male, a pair is formed. The vestibule’s nest is built directly on the earth’s surface in the immediate vicinity of the edge, glade or clearing, that is, from the bleached place. The nest is always covered from above with dry stems of grass. It is so well disguised that it is almost impossible to detect it. The nest of foxes-vesnichek has the form of a ball, it is endowed with a lateral inlet, the tray of the vesnichki is lined with feathers. Construction of the bay continues for five to seven days, a large role in this process is played by the female, while the male only delivers the building material to it. The masonry includes four to eight eggs. On the white surface of eggs, brownish-red specks are clearly visible.

Femme-vesnichka lays eggs twice a year.

Characteristic only for individuals nesting in the southern part of the range. The first masonry is in May. The second masonry takes place in late June or early July. As for the northern areas of the range, the female breeds chicks only once a year – the only masonry is in June. The female incubates eggs from thirteen to fifteen days, but both parents bring up the offspring born to the world – this takes from fifteen to eighteen days. After the departure of the nestlings from the nest, they still receive food from their parents for a week. At the end of this time, the young chamois-vesnichki begin to roam through the forest. Young individuals are confused in schools. As for adults, they are preparing for the second nesting (for those for whom it is characteristic) – about two weeks is spent on arranging the nest in a new site. Departure to the wintering grounds of the Foam Vesnichek starts early. From the end of July, individuals of this species fly away from nesting sites, and at the end of October all the vesicles arrive at their destination.

Crowns of deciduous trees and shrubs – the place of feeding of spring chicks.

And the only thing. Furrows carefully examine the leaves and thin branches of trees and shrubs in search of prey, which is often scraped on the fly. Vesnichki prefer to flutter at the ends of branches, and not to look for food in the grass and shrub underbrush. In the diet of foams, the spring contains aphids, spiders, caterpillars and pupae of butterflies, small Diptera, small beetles, sawflies, and in the autumn the diet of these birds is diversified by berries as well.


Foam-tsenkovka and chiffchaff-vesnichka are similar in appearance.

The body length of the chiffchaff-taenkovka varies from twelve to fourteen and a half centimeters, and the length of the wing is in the range of five and a half to six and a half centimeters. Weight ranges from eight to nine grams. At пеночка-теньковки legs of black color (in what its difference from пеночка-веснички consists). In addition, individuals of these two species differ significantly in singing.

Chiffchaff

The distribution area of ​​chiffchaff-taenkovka is small.

On the contrary, it is very significant. This bird lives almost everywhere, where there is a shrub or tree vegetation. Thus, chiffchaff-taenkovku can be seen on the territory from the Scandinavian peninsula and west to the Kolyma river basin in the east. The distribution area of ​​chiffchaff-taenkovka sometimes even goes beyond the Arctic Circle, and in the south it reaches the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. To the nesting places of individuals of this species belong to the same southern mountainous Central Asian regions, as well as the territories of Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. The nesting places of these foams include the southern regions of Asia, the North African territories and the territories of the Arabian Peninsula, as well as the southern regions of the nesting range.Places of wintering wax-taenkovki leave already in the beginning of March, and to places of nesting they start to arrive in April, which is quite early for chaff. The first to arrive are males, who, having chosen a site, begin to sing. Thanks melodic, loud, pure singing, tsenkovka got its name. After all, the taenkovks make about the following sounds: “shadow-shadow-shadow …”, which is somewhat similar to the sound of slowly falling drops of water. Females arrive at the nesting sites about a week after the arrival of the males. It is the female who chooses the place for the nest on the site that was chosen by the male. The nest is built no higher than sixty to ninety centimeters above the surface of the earth. As a rule, it settles on stumps, in bushes underbrush, in the thick of spruce undergrowth or directly on the ground. Near the nest, there are always lightened areas. The exception to the height on which the nest is located may be the following case. Foam-tsenkovka can build a nest at a height of two to four meters (in spruce paws) when the forest is often visited by animals or people. The nest has a hemispherical shape, in its upper part there is a side opening – the entrance. Masonry takes place in May. It consists of five to seven eggs. Their white surface is covered with reddish-brown spots. The female incubates eggs thirteen or fourteen days. After the appearance of the chicks, the female spends a lot of time next to them, warming her offspring. Feed the chicks and the female, and the male. For one day, they together bring their food an average of three hundred to three hundred and fifty times.

Green chiffchaff builds a nest exclusively for their moss.

This is its feature in relation to other chiffchaffs. Moss is fastened with pieces of last year’s leaves and stems of herbs. A little wool and horse hair goes to lining the surface of the tray. A nest of green chiffchaff is built in dense grass. Often it can be found in the nettle. Sometimes it is covered, as it were, by a fallen tree, a bush or an overhanging beam of grass. Masonry of individuals of this species contains five or six eggs. Their surface is pure white, however, the shell is so thin that the yolk that radiates through it gives the surface of the egg a yellowish-pink hue.



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