Chad



The state of Chad is located in the central part of the African continent, its capital is the city of N’Djamena. Chad does not have access to the sea; borders with Libya, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger. According to the data for July 2010, the population of Chad was about ten and a half million people. The annual increase in the population is two percent. The average life expectancy of women is forty-nine years, men – forty-seven years.

According to the 1993 census, more than two hundred ethnic groups reside in Chad, among which twelve per cent belong to Arabs and twenty-eight per cent belong to Sarah. The census also provided data on the religious views of Chad’s people – most profess Islam (Muslims own more than fifty-three percent of the total population), more than twenty percent of the population are Catholics, more than fourteen are Protestants. Approximately seven percent of the population are animists. Atheists – three percent.


The official languages ​​are two – Arabic and French. In total there are about one hundred and twenty languages ​​and dialects, for example, in the southern part of the country the languages ​​of Sarah are popular. Differences between the northern and southern parts of the country are very clearly visible: they are seen in the way of life and in traditions.

Chad

Chad has a rich historical past.

In its present territory about 4 thousand years BC. e. Negroids lived, the main occupation of which was hunting. Public education arose in the ninth century AD – in the immediate vicinity of Lake Chad. It was called Kanem. A few centuries later – in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries – Kanem significantly expanded its territory, which stretches from Lake Chad to the highlands of Tibersi. The eleventh century brought with it the process of Arab Islamization. The ruling elite of the country turned to the Muslim faith first. Kanem existed not so long, and by the end of the fourteenth century such a state did not exist. New states on the territory of modern Chad arose in the sixteenth century. It is Bagirmi – south of Lake Chad and Vadai – east of it. It can not be said that the states were leading a peaceful life, they were aggressive not only against their neighbors, but also against each other. In the course of their constant wars, they seized a huge number of slaves, who were subsequently sold on slave wounds. Until the nineteenth century, both states existed separately, but in the nineteenth century they became integral parts of the state of Rabbah.

Chad is an illiterate country.

Indeed, based on the 2000 estimate, it turns out that only twelve percent of women and forty percent of men are literate.

Chad is an urbanized country.

In contrast, the share of the urban population is about thirty percent of the total population (twenty-seven percent in 2008).

Chad is a poor country.

There are at least eighty percent of the country’s population below the poverty line. In 2009, the gross domestic product amounted to one thousand six hundred dollars per person, which corresponds to the ninety-sixth place in the world. At the present time, the state is dependent on foreign investment and assistance from other states. The economy is led by the agricultural sector. So, up to eighty percent of the working population are engaged in subsistence farming. Mainly, it is represented by the breeding of cattle (camels, goats and sheep). Cultivated potatoes, rice, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cotton. Agriculture provides up to sixty percent of gross domestic product. The country has oil and copper deposits, tantalum and tin, beryl and gold, uranium and bauxite. As for oil, its production in a significant amount began in late 2003, the development of this industry is promoted by Chinese and American companies. Already in 2004, oil became one of the most important articles of Chadian exports.In addition to oil production, the industry is represented by brewing, processing meat, processing cotton, and also manufacturing cigarettes and soap supplies.

Chad is a state with a negative trade balance.

On the contrary, exports are at least twice as high as imports. So, in 2008 the cost of imported products amounted to 1900 million dollars, and exported products – 4300 million dollars. The main import items are textile, food and industrial products, and exports – cotton, livestock, and oil. The main buyers of children’s products are France, Japan, Taiwan and the United States of America. The US in this regard is an undoubted leader and buys more than ninety percent of Chad’s exports. The main suppliers are Germany, the United States of America (about eight percent), Ukraine, China, Cameroon, France (about eighteen percent).

In Chad, an unfavorable health situation has developed.

This corresponds to reality. In fact, parasitic and infectious diseases have spread in the country. Intestinal infections are often caused by a lack of drinking water. Thus, clean water is always available to only about twenty-seven per cent of the population of Chad. As a result – low life expectancy, which on average is forty-eight years. In this regard, it is very revealing that only twenty-nine percent of the population of Chad (data from 2000) can receive at least some assistance from medical services, and only in such cities as Abeche, N’Djamena and several others, there are institutions of medical profile. Health care expenditure slightly exceeds three percent of gross domestic product. 2003 showed that the rate of increase in the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was almost 5 percent, there were about 200,000 people who had HIV and already had AIDS.

Primary education is the main stage of education.

This is indeed so. State secondary schools appeared in the country only in 1942, before that those who wanted to get secondary education, had to go to the Republic of Congo or Brazzaville. However, right up to the sixties of the last century the school curriculum was not certified in the opened secondary Chadian schools. In 1960, the goal of universal primary education was announced, everyone had to attend school up to 12 years. Still, the level of education in Chad continued to be at an extremely low level, so in 1971 to speak French, only twelve percent of men and one percent of women knew how to write and read. It should be noted that at that time the French language was the only official language of Chad. Though the minority of the population also owned Arabic (about eight percent). In the promotion of education, there are a lot of problems, among them the shortage of teachers, and insufficient level of their preparation, and extremely poor school equipment, and insufficient funding. The number of students in one class could reach one hundred people, which is due to overpopulation. Progressive trends were noted in the 70’s and 80’s. the twentieth century, when even in N’Djamena the first university was opened.

Chad

Cereals are the main food products of Chad.

Specifically, millet. From it do donuts “fangasu” (as a rule, they are cooked for breakfast), pancakes, etc. In general, the features of Chad’s national cuisine are equally inherent in other countries of the region. There are many options for cooking dishes from cereals. Both in the southern and northern parts of Chad, the so-called “bule”, made from cereals, is popular. “Bule” is a paste, which is lowered into the sauce in the form of pre-rolled balls. Wheat grown in Chad is not enough, and therefore spread is rice, sorghum and manioc.

Meat – in Chad a scarce product.

On the contrary, dishes that include mutton, poultry, beef are traditional for various areas of Chad. Especially it is worth noting the northern part of the country, where cattle raising is a leading activity. As for pork, it is known that Muslims do not consume it. However, in the south of the country, in N’Djamena, pork is not a rare ingredient in local dishes. Garnish for meat dishes are French bread, various salads, rice, local sauces.

Fish is a popular product in the country.

Chad cooks know more than a dozen recipes from carp, tilapia, okra, perch, perch. The fish is served both in roast, and in smoked, and in salted, and in dried form. Fried fish is often dressed with sauce. Fish is also exported to some countries. For example, in Nigeria and Cameroon comes the “gang” and “salanga”. In the first case we are talking about a large smoked fish, in the second – about a small salted or dried.

Fruit is an ordinary “guest” at Chad tables.

In general, there is a lack of fruit in the country. Many fruits are expensive because they are imported. Only in the south of Chad the assortment of cultivated fruits is very impressive (it’s bananas, guava, mangoes, etc.). It is here that the dishes, the ingredients of which are fruits, are quite common. In addition, in the northern Chad oases, raisins and dates are grown.

Karkade is a traditional Chadian drink.

Indeed, this drink is the most popular among the people of Chad. It often adds cloves or cinnamon, the main component is the flowers of hibiscus. Karkad is drunk almost everywhere, it is raised as a sign of respect during the reception (in this respect, its function is similar to that of coffee). In any part of Chad you can find a drink like “jus de frut”. It is a kind of fruit cocktail. It adds ice, cardamom and milk. As for alcoholic beverages, their Muslims do not drink on religious grounds. At the same time, wine from white and red millet (the first is called “kosh”, the second – “billy-billy”) is popular in the southern districts of Chad. Of millet, strong alcoholic beverages are also produced. Alcohol is imported from abroad, but it can only be bought at a high price and only in large cities.

There is a certain social tension within Chad.

The fact is that in Chad, two sub-ethnic entities are clearly distinguished, which are, as it were, two branches of the culture of this country. The causes of the emerging tension in the differences in the way of life of the northern and southern parts of Chadian society. As for the southern part of the Chad population, among them is the Christian faith. Almost all the inhabitants of these areas belong to the Shari-Nil language group (bagirmi, mass, muses, mundang, hausa, sara, Masa and other tribal groups). The most common group is Sarah. Its name is often transferred to the entire Christian part of the country’s population. Despite this, neighboring tribes often have no similar customs and may even differ in language. The northern part of Chad’s population is adherents of Islam. Moreover, residents of these areas profess this religion in its orthodox form. Here live the nomads Goran, Daza, Teda and other tribes of the Tuareg group, as well as the tribes of Hajerai, Zaghawa, Bulala, Kanembu, Fulbe, Hausi, Kotoko and others. The tribesmen build their life in a certain degree isolated from other tribes, each of which boasts of its militancy and whose representatives are unusually proud people. There is a well-developed folklore, there are own musical traditions.

Clans are the basis of the social organization of Chadian society.

The clan system is inherent in both the northern and southern parts of the country to varying degrees. In the north of Chad, an Arab type of kinship was established. The basic unit of the local clan system is “kishimet”, headed by “shaykh” or “sheikh” (the so-called elder).Kishimbet is nothing more than a group of male relatives. Members of Kishimbet not only live in the same neighborhood, but also wander along the same routes. Inside the clan, the sheikh has unlimited powers. Among other things, the sheikh has the right to break or, conversely, establish and maintain relations with neighboring clans, he is responsible for conducting ceremonies and rituals, observing the observance of religious rules. Marriages between representatives of different classes are very common. At the same time, it is often the closely related union of a man and a woman, because otherwise it is very difficult to observe all the rituals and procedures. Although the clan organization of society is also characteristic of the southern part of the country, more free relations between clans have been established on its territory. Marriage between two representatives of different clans is noticeably more easy than in the north. At thirteen – fourteen years old, the girl already, as a rule, has entered into marriage or, at least, is engaged. The first 3 months the bride lives in the family of the chosen one. At the end of this period, she returns to her father’s house, where the groom must remake a huge number of cases, in particular, build a hut for his mother-in-law and work 3 years in the fields. It is interesting that the southern tribal groups are often headed by a woman, playing the role of head of the family.

Chad


Livestock is the main source of income for nomadic people.

For the nomads, this is indeed so. At the same time, in the territory of Chad, agricultural areas are quite often found, mainly in the zone of oases and in the southern part of the country. Residents of the northern part of Chad mined sodium and salt. In addition, nomads are also regarded as smugglers. They are born traders who skillfully organize the connection between the countries of the Maghreb and the Central African countries. For a nomadic people, this type of dwelling is characteristic of a tent. Settlers of Chad are constructing, according to the Arab tradition, adobe or adobe houses.

Chadians are a friendly people with a rich culture.

They are very calm people. However, they always require respect for their culture and traditions. Of great importance in Chad are greetings and congratulations. There are many special rituals for each case. The form of greeting is related not only to the social status, the status of a person, his age, etc., but even with the time of the day. In many areas of the country there is a tradition to present a small present to the guests. In this case, as a token of attention, the reciprocal gesture will be appreciated. The differences between the southern and northern parts of Chad are clearly manifested in the features associated with human behavior in a given situation. For example, if in the north the chadu seems suspicious that his interlocutor does not look him in the eyes, then in the south – this will seem a manifestation of ignorance.



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