is an attack of suffocation, which can last from several minutes to several days. This condition is a threat to human life. Cardiac asthma can occur with heart defects, cardiosclerosis, myocardial infarction, as well as other diseases that are associated with heart failure.
The main symptom of cardiac asthma is shortness of breath, which causes a feeling of tightness in the chest. During an attack a person experiences a feeling of fear and tries to listen tensely and understand what is happening in his body.
Diagnosis of cardiac asthma is relatively easy in young people and can be very difficult for older people. In the latter case, differential diagnosis is required. It is conducted to determine what kind of asthma is present in the patient (bronchial or cardiac). This type of diagnosis is multi-faceted and complex.
It is very important to provide emergency medical care, which in most cases is carried out on the spot. The purpose of emergency medical care is to reduce the flow of blood into the small circle of the circulation and the heart.
To solve this problem, the patient is given certain injections, possibly bloodletting and the use of leeches. Often there is a need to deliver the patient to the hospital after first aid. The provision of emergency care is a whole complex of measures.
In the hospital, patients with mitral stenosis can surgically eliminate all the symptoms of cardiac asthma. This is done in parallel with the surgical treatment of the very heart defect (mitral stenosis).
Preventive measures aimed specifically at preventing an attack of cardiac asthma are difficult to isolate. This is due to the fact that the main preventive measures aimed at preventing cardiovascular diseases are aimed at preventing the development of each of them (including cardiac asthma).
Cardiac asthma is an independent disease.
No, it’s not. Cardiac asthma, as a rule, develops as a complication of other diseases. It can be congenital and acquired heart defects, hypertension, cardiosclerosis or myocardial infarction.
Cardiac asthma often occurs at night.
It leads to awakening of the patient with a feeling of acute shortage of air and constriction in the chest. Common causes of cardiac asthma are difficulty breathing and the appearance of dry cough. The patient, as a rule, begins to experience a feeling of anxiety and fear. His face is covered with sweat. If cardiac asthma occurs in the daytime, the reasons for it in most cases are a developed attack of angina, a sharp increase in blood pressure, or emotional and physical stress. Before the immediate onset of cardiac asthma, the patient may complain of increased heart rate and chest tightness. But all the same it is worth remembering that cardiac asthma in most cases develops during the night.
Shortness of breath is the main symptom of developing cardiac asthma.
Shortness of breath is paroxysmal. The predominant one is a noisy extended breath. During such an attack the patient usually begins to breathe through the mouth. With a cardiac asthma that developed at night, the patient can not continue to lie in a reclining position – he goes into a sitting position or rises. This is due to the fact that the vertical position of the body shortness of breath tends to decrease. Often the patient, who has had cardiac asthma forced to go to the window, the reason for this is the desire to breathe fresh air. The patient experiences severe difficulty in pronouncing words, which causes the appearance of fear. This is reflected in his facial expressions – on the face of the patient you can see fear and tension.
Cardiac asthma occurs as a result of changes in the heart.
The development of cardiac asthma is due to heart failure of the left ventricle or mitral stenosis.Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the left atrioventricular orifice. Thus, cardiac asthma occurs as a result of deep organic changes in the myocardium (cardiac muscle). These changes mainly affect the left ventricle of the heart. The basis of the appearance of asthma attacks in people with heart disease is the weakness of the left ventricle of the heart. In this case, the right ventricle of the heart retains its power. As a result of this, a pressure increase appears reflexively in a small circle of blood circulation. Such hypertension is also called pulmonary and contributes to a sharp increase in the amount of blood and a decrease in the volume of pulmonary ventilation. The first (rapid increase in the amount of blood) is also accompanied by an overflow of bronchial veins and a delayed blood flow in the pulmonary capillaries. All this causes the second (reduction of the volume of ventilation of the lungs) and leads to a violation of gas exchange. Directly provoking an attack of suffocation cause excessive irritation of the respiratory center in the brain. This is due to an increase in the content of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in the oxygen content in it. The respiratory surface of the lungs also decreases due to an increase in the permeability of the walls of the capillaries of the small circle of circulation. As a result, fluid accumulates in the cavities of the alveoli, which, naturally, makes gas exchange even more difficult.
Cardiac asthma is the beginning of the development of pulmonary edema.
The latter can be due to the accumulation of a very large amount of fluid in the cavity of the alveoli, which leads to a severe difficulty in the operation of the lungs. Excessively accumulated in the alveoli fluid can begin to enter the bronchi, which leads to the emergence of an acute form of pulmonary edema. To avoid this, immediately after the onset of the development of cardiac asthma, all efforts should be directed to prevent the development of this complication.
The duration of an attack of cardiac asthma is not great.
Not quite right, because the duration of such an attack can be calculated as minutes, and hours and even days. An attack of cardiac asthma can lead to the death of the patient, if during the time it was not possible to prevent pulmonary edema.
Diagnosis of cardiac asthma is not difficult.
This concerns only the diagnosis of cardiac asthma in young people in cases where asthma attacks are typical. In elderly people, the diagnosis of cardiac asthma is not so easy. This is due to the fact that in elderly people, cardiac asthma is often observed against the background of emphysema of the lungs or chronic bronchitis, which lubricate the clinical manifestations of immediate cardiac asthma. In this case, the diagnosis should be of a differential nature to determine which asthma the patient has – bronchial or cardiac. However, cases are not uncommon. When such a diagnosis is not effective. It does not allow you to be sure of correct recognition of asthma. This affects primarily those patients who are very difficult to separate bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma. This applies to cases where bronchial asthma is accompanied by cardiac insufficiency and emphysema of the lungs, and cardiac asthma is characterized by the presence of spasms of the muscles of small bronchi. In this case we are talking about the so-called “mixed asthma”. In order to make a diagnosis in this case, it is necessary to conduct a thorough comprehensive examination, after which it is desirable to stay patient under prolonged clinical supervision.
In the provision of emergency care, several tasks must be solved at once.
There are two. The first thing that a doctor needs to do is to help reduce the amount of circulating blood in a small circle of blood circulation by reducing its influx. The second is to try to solve the same problem, only by increasing the outflow of blood from the small circle of blood circulation. To solve the first task, you need to do the following. First, the patient must assume a sitting position.This situation in this case can be attributed to a protective act, since it helps to reduce the flow of blood into the small circle of the circulation and the right ventricle of the heart. A sitting position leads to a slowing of the blood flow in the veins of the lower extremities, which leads to a restriction of blood flow. To a large extent, the blood flow can be reduced by applying bundles to the lower limbs. The patient’s stay with the bundles varies from one to one and a half hours. In severe cases of cardiac asthma, it is possible to apply tourniquets not only to the lower extremities, but also to the upper extremities. If an attack of cardiac asthma occurs in mild form, then it is possible to use dry cans that are placed on the chest. Hot foot baths are also used. In severe course of cardiac asthma, which is characterized, in particular, by the duration of the attack, leeches can be used. In this case, the area of the liver is set from twelve to fifteen leeches. Possible bleeding from the ulnar vein (from 400 to 500 ml). If there are neurovascular disorders, the patient is assigned to euphyllin, caffeine, cordyamine, camphor. In order to solve the second task, the following measures are possible. The patient is inhaled with oxygen, intravenously injected with euphyllin, strophanthin, neoriolin or other cardiovascular drugs that are diluted in a 0.85% solution of common salt or glucose solution. Subcutaneous administration of lobelia or morphine is possible. The purpose of the latter is to regulate the act of breathing. These drugs affect the respiratory center of the brain.
Emergency measures for cardiac asthma should be carried out in a comprehensive manner.
It is recommended to implement them directly on site. It is very important to help the patient achieve mental and physical rest. If it is not possible to carry out the whole complex of measures for emergency care for cardiac asthma, only a part of these measures is carried out. After the threat to life is over, the patient is taken to a hospital. This requires certain precautions, in particular the use of stretchers, possible injections of caffeine and camphor during the journey to the hospital. For such a patient, a quiet running of the machine must also be ensured. In the hospital the patient is assigned a whole complex of medical measures. Necessary are proper care, compliance with a certain diet, etc.
Cardiac asthma is treated conservatively.
In most cases, the patient gets rid of the attack with the help of conservative methods. However, for example, in the case when the patient has mitral stenosis (type of heart disease), it is possible to relieve asthma attacks (due to cardiac asthma) with the surgical treatment of directly mitral stenosis.
Prevention of cardiac asthma is similar to the prevention of other cardiovascular diseases.
Of course, every person can not know what preventive measures he needs to use to avoid every specific disease of the cardiovascular system. Not every person knows about the existence of such kinds of asthma attacks as cardiac asthma. But absolutely everyone should take care of their health and carry out the following general preventive measures (a set of preventive measures). First, the reduction in the number of neuropsychic stresses – it is on their basis often develops diseases of the cardiovascular system. Secondly, an active way of life. It’s about giving your body “muscle joy” (an expression belongs to Academician Pavlov). Third, a good rest. Fourth, full nutrition and rejection of bad habits. Fifth, periodically repeated examinations at the cardiologist for the purpose of prophylaxis. Here is a very simple set of measures that can program each person for health and virtually eliminate the possibility of developing any cardiovascular diseases, including cardiac asthma.