is a disease that is among the leading causes of death in the population. Every year on the planet from it about 15% of people die. In our country, this is 300 thousand deaths of Russians annually and two and a half million oncological diagnoses.
Often, the term “cancer” means all types of cancer. In fact, medicine considers cancer only malignant neoplasms of the epithelium. This disease is called cancer, one of the founders of ancient Greek medicine, Hippocrates, by the association of the type of tumor with the tentacles of cancer.
Cancer refers to the uncontrolled division of certain types of cells, followed by the migration of cells into non-infected organs for lymph and blood. There the cells continue their uncontrolled division, resulting in tumors (metastasis). The science that studies cancer and deals with its treatment is called oncology.
From cancer always die.
This is not true. Cancer does not always mean a death sentence. It can be completely cured, and cured finally. But, unfortunately, not in all cases. Several factors contribute to the cure of the disease.
First, it’s a kind of cancer. The speed of cell division depends on this.
Secondly, the stage in which cancer is diagnosed is of great importance. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the smaller the tumor and, correspondingly, the greater the probability of its complete removal.
Thirdly, very much depends on the drugs and equipment that are available from the medical institution. Unfortunately, in our country, they are not produced, because often physicians can not afford to use the latest foreign achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This is the reason for such a high death rate from cancer in Russia.
A person with cancer should be isolated from the rest.
Although the causes of cancer have not yet been established, it is reliably known that it is not transmitted by contact with a person who has fallen ill with oncology. Therefore, patients with cancer are isolated from the team only for the period necessary for the passage of medical procedures.
Cancer is inherited.
Partially true. The most common opinion in the medical community about the causes of the onset and development of cancer is its viral genetic nature. That is, cancer occurs in the case of a genome breaking that triggers uncontrolled cell division. The reasons for this can be as a radioactive exposure, reduced immunity, hormonal disorders, and hereditary predisposition. However, heredity plays a role only for certain types of cancer (for example, breast cancer). More often the cancer arises under the influence of external factors. The most common of these is viral infections. In 15% of cases, cancer develops precisely because of them. So, hepatitis B and C are often complicated by liver cancer, and papillomas can lead to complications in the form of cancer of the cervix or penis. So the hereditary predisposition to oncological diseases is important only in some cases.
A large number of moles can indicate cancer.
Indeed, if you suddenly have many birthmarks or other tumors on your skin, you need to undergo a specialist examination.
People who have cancer, remain bald.
Wrong. After the sessions of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, cancer patients, indeed, suffer from hair loss. In the case of radiation therapy, the degree of alopecia depends on the radiation dose, and the problems arise only when the head is irradiated. And in the case of chemotherapy, this side effect is temporary, and over time, the hair follicles are restored.
Scientists have already created a vaccine against cancer.
Not quite right. At the moment, there is only an inoculation against cervical cancer. Strictly speaking, this vaccine is not against cancer, but against the papillomaviruses that provoke the development of the disease. And even then it is developed only for women under the age of 26 years. Nevertheless, now it is just getting widespread in Russia.In the long term, this vaccine will become mandatory for all girls. In addition, vaccinations against viruses that promote cancer are widely known. For example, hepatitis B and C. In other respects, the problem of developing vaccines against cancer remains unresolved.
Frost can completely cure cancer.
Partially true. When cryosurgery is frozen, the area affected by the tumor, as a result of which it collapses. It is very effective at the stage of early development of the disease. It also shows good results in more complex cases. In the group of hopeless patients, 7% of people subjected to cryosurgery have a chance to prolong their life. However, oncologists stress that cryosurgery does not solve all the problems. This is only one of the methods of treating cancer. In addition, for Russian patients, cryosurgery is often unavailable due to the high cost of equipment produced abroad, and also because very few specialists are able to handle this equipment.
Green tea saves from prostate cancer.
Not proven. Theoretically, the antioxidants contained in green tea can prevent the development of the disease. However, in fact, to get the necessary amount of antioxidants for this, you need to drink an incredible amount of tea. In addition, it should be fresh tea, not tea bags. However, the fact that in China (where green tea is popular) is very low percentage mortality of men from prostate cancer, gives some hope.
Bones of apples do not allow cancer to develop.
This is a myth. Bones of apples contain cyanide acid – amygdalin. In the 18-19 centuries, scientists tried to treat them with oncological diseases. However, to date, studies have proven the fallacy of these attempts. However, modern scientists believe that to prevent cancer, you need not to eat apples, but apples. Or rather, all fresh fruits and vegetables. Because they contain a large number of antioxidants. Include in your diet up to 5 servings of different fruits and vegetables every day, and you will significantly reduce the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum, stomach, mouth and esophagus.
Excess weight can trigger cancer.
Dependence between overweight and the risk of developing breast cancer was noticed by American, Canadian and Polish scientists. According to their studies, reducing weight by 4.5 kg at the age of 18 to 30 years, women reduce the risk of developing breast cancer by 65%. And women who gain weight during the menopause or after it, this risk, on the contrary, increases. American researchers say that physical activity at least 6 hours per week reduces the risk of cancer by 20%. Modern scientists believe that 30% of oncological diseases are due to adherence to high-calorie nutrition, as a result of which the metabolism is disrupted.