(Camelus) is a large mammal of the family of camelid detachment of cloven-hoofed suborder of the corpulent with a desert habitat, which is divided into two species: Bactrian (or Two-humped camel) and Dromedar (Odnogroby camel). Camels of both species have been considered domesticated for more than 5000 years and are used mainly as beasts of burden and draft animals.
вер Camels can not exist in mountains and localities with a humid climate. In the process of evolution, camels developed a number of adaptations to the conditions of deserts and dry steppes. Camels eat such plants of the desert, which are poorly or not at all eat by other animals; are satisfied with less water and can drink salt water. Unlike other ruminants, camels have two incisors in the upper jaw.
Parts of the camel’s body that touch the ground during lying, are equipped with calloused formations; camels have pectoral, wrist, elbow and nipped corns. Due to this, camels are able to lie on the hot (up to 70 ° C) soil. Both hoofs of each foot at the camel are of insignificant size. Camels rest on a broad, soft paw that makes walking easier on the sand.
The weight of an adult animal ranges from 500 to 800 kilograms, life expectancy is from 30 to 50 years.
Camels live in Central Asia.
They also occur from Asia Minor to Manchuria. Single-horned camels can also be found in North Africa, where they are distributed as pets, and also in the Middle East up to India.
A camel can do without food for about a month.
This is facilitated by the same fat deposits on the back of the animal that we used to call humpbacks.
Camels swim well.
This is true, despite the fact that most of them have never encountered large reservoirs.
Camels live in harems.
In groups of up to 15 individuals, one male is usually found in several females and their offspring. Sometimes you can meet animals that lead a solitary lifestyle.
A camel is a herbivore.
His multi-chamber stomach is able to digest practically any vegetable food, including barbed and salted.
Two-humped camels differ from single-horned camels.
Bactrian legs are shorter, and the camel itself is massive. Perhaps, therefore, single-horned camels are more quick – in 11 hours they can overcome the distance of 200 kilometers.
The camel well tolerates the heat of the desert thanks to its hump.
Ironically, the humps of a camel are not adapted to the storage of moisture. From the heat of the day (as well as from the night cold), the camel is protected by its thick fur and 8-degree fluctuations in body temperature, which reduces the danger of overheating (including sweating) and hypothermia. When breathing, the liquid released from the nostrils does not leave the body, since it accumulates in a special fold, and then through the mouth it returns back to the animal’s body. Important for the transfer of dry climate is the fact that the camel that reached the water, thanks to the special oval form of its red blood cells, is able to drink from 60 to 100 liters of water in a relatively short time (for good reason they say: “What do you drink like a camel?”) . It is worth noting that the camel in terms of water consumption is unpretentious – it is able to drink, as pure, and stagnant or salt water. Well, finally, the camel’s excrement due to the elongated nephrons in the kidneys turns out to be highly concentrated, and, accordingly, less damp.
The camel is very hardy.
In a day, he can carry on himself from 200 to 300 kilograms of weight for a distance of 50 or more kilometers.
Camel’s milk is very useful.
It contains a lot of substances necessary for the body (iron, calcium, magnesia, etc.), a high concentration of vitamins C and D, but casein, which complicates the digestion of milk products by the body, is much less than in cow milk we know.When using camel milk, it is necessary to remember that due to its special properties, it can not immediately be absorbed by an unusual organism.
In the East, camel races are arranged.
For example, in the UAE (United Arab Emirates), where on the roads you can easily meet the sign: “Caution, Camels!”. For Arabians, camel racing is not just an exciting spectacle, but also a national tradition. Runs here are held from October to April almost every week.
Camels are vindictive.
They are cunning enough and rancorous. In Saudi Arabia, for example, cases were recorded where camels took revenge on a person for the offended members of their flock. The character of a camel in general is quite harmful: make him do something against his will – you will get an angry, biting, yelling, roaring animal.
In ancient times, camels participated in battles.
They were used in the ancient and medieval armies for the transport of goods and riders, and for battles. On the camel, in this case, two warriors were placed: one – a driver, the second – an archer.