is a public car designed for 9 or more passengers. The first buses appeared in the early 20th century. Comparatively widespread already at the beginning of the 1-st world war.
In Moscow, regular bus lines were organized in 1924. By appointment, buses are divided into urban, suburban, intercity (tourist), local communication and general purpose.
City buses have a passenger area with several doors for entry and exit, with a limited number of seats, with a wide central passageway, with spacious “storage” areas near the doors. City buses are characterized by their ability to intensively disperse, which provides a relatively high average speed with frequent stops.
Suburban buses have a passenger area with a reduced central passage and “storage” areas, and due to this a larger number of seats.
Long-distance (tourist) buses in the passenger room are equipped with hard or soft (sleeping) seats. The buses are equipped with heating and ventilation, and some also with a wardrobe, a refrigerator, a toilet. Bays for luggage are placed under the floor of the passenger room. The design of such buses should provide traffic at high speed.
Local buses are used to transport passengers on intra-district and inter-district routes, mainly in rural areas. These buses provide for increased strength of the body and chassis, increased ground clearance, and sometimes a drive on 2 or 3 axles.
In western cities, from all types of public transport there was only a bus.
Absolutely mistaken opinion. Along with a well developed bus service (both urban and intercity), there are other types of “non-rail transport” (trolleybus, duobus, ie combined trolleybus / bus, etc.).
A lot of traffic is carried out through the use of personal cars and subway, on suburban routes, preference is given to electric trains. In addition, in many countries there is a network of tram lines, which constitute a serious competition for bus routes.
Buses damage the environment by polluting the air with exhausts.
Not necessary – it all depends on the model range. Modern buses are equipped with the most advanced emission control systems, but these models are quite expensive, therefore, there are practically none in the streets of post-Soviet cities.
Buses should be replaced with trolley buses.
Indeed, the developed infrastructure of trolleybus routes can help in solving many problems. However, it should be remembered that if the passenger traffic on one or another direction is less than 1 thousand passengers per hour, the best and most profitable vehicle will still be a bus.
Buses are the fastest and most mobile.
This is not quite true. Since the electric motor is more powerful than the internal combustion engine, the bus spends more time on acceleration and braking, and on parallel segments the trolleybus often overtakes buses. An increase in the speed of transportation is due to the fact that buses miss some minor stops, working by express. The mobility of buses is, of course, higher than, say, electric transport, however, moving along with the rest of the vehicles, this vehicle is absolutely not insured from getting into the “traffic jam”. At the same time, for example, a high-speed tram from this is spared.
Double-decker buses are often overturned.
In fact, almost all machines of this type are equipped with anti-tipping mechanisms (most often – ballast from pig iron, which is mounted on the chassis to lower the center of gravity).
For buses in all developed countries, there is a dedicated band.
No, the allocated bands only for buses with the creation of BRT systems (Bus Rapclass Transit) is a rare phenomenon, as the arrangement of this kind of highway is quite expensive. More often for the movement of buses, as well as taxi cars, light trucks specializing in the urgent delivery of goods, the extreme right row is freed. Or, there are combined tram-bus lines with stops near the sites on the “islets” (this frees the extreme right-hand row of the road, allows you to abandon the construction of “pockets” at the stops, provides the convenience of transplants, etc.). On these lanes, the departure of private transport is prohibited, which significantly increases the speed of public transport. However, maneuverability, as an additional possibility of buses moving along a dedicated lane, is sharply reduced.
Buses should be replaced by minibuses – and places take up less, and travel more often, and move faster.
According to world experience, a complete replacement of public bus transport by fixed-route taxis is simply unprofitable. On the convenience of passengers and say nothing – a low cabin, excessively close to the seats, the instability of some types of “minibuses,” etc. Certainly, some routes can actually serve only minibuses, and on other and 200-seat double-articulated there will be little. The route taxi is an auxiliary transport, but not the main one.
Private road hauliers will serve the passenger better than public ones.
Not necessary. The fact is that private traders sometimes use old high-mileage buses, which does not always have a positive effect on the quality of the carrier’s services offered.
In buses, especially long-distance, it’s very uncomfortable and boring to ride.
In comfortable modern buses plying between cities, you can watch TV and read a book, and sleep and have a snack. Yes, and the landscapes outside the window, nothing prevents you from admiring – because the roads, unlike the railway tracks, dense thickets of trees are often not cased.
For traveling, for example in Europe, the bus is not suitable – whether it’s an airplane.
Of course, if you go on a business trip, the plane is the best means of transportation. If your goal is rest and new impressions, it’s best to take the bus. This is cheaper (and it does not matter when exactly you buy a ticket – for a month, a week or a day before departure), and it is more convenient. And bus routes are more extensive than air travel.
It is best to travel with a group of tourists on a special bus.
Of course, it’s a matter of taste. But if you are not attracted by a tour in a tour group by a route chosen by the travel agency, then on a regular bus you can ride quite well on the places of interest to you. There are firms that specialize in transportation of this kind – they will consult you in detail, answer all questions (about the route, price, etc.).
There are no toilets on the bus.
In many countries buses have long been equipped with toilets working all along the route. Another thing is that people are very full this service may not be available – that they have to wait for a stop.