(Latin Procellariclassae) is a medium sized sea bird. Representatives of the petrel family are found at the shores of all oceans, mostly however in the Southern Hemisphere. The order of the Petrels (or Trumpeterae) includes 81 species. Plumage is either completely dark or bicolour with a light bottom.
The southern hemisphere is famous for the largest number of inhabited species of petrels. There are five species of nests in the Russian seas, in addition, thirteen species can be seen during the period of migration. To the Russian coast of the Pacific during the migration arrive three species of albatross: black-footed, white-backed and dark-backed.
The nutritional base of small species of tubercles includes squid, small fish, planktonic crustaceans. The diet of large representatives of this detachment includes carrion and garbage from ships. The largest representatives of the order of tuberculosis are the albatrosses, and the smallest are the individuals of the family of kachurks. Most of the life of the petrels spend over the ocean expanses, which contributes to the structure of their body.
Petrels or trumpets are the name of the same order.
How different are these names! From the first, it breathes poetry, and the second seems a bit rude. And yet they are closely related …. The fact is that due to the same horn ducts in the nose of petrels (because of which the second name appeared), these birds are able to spend a significant part of life over the expanses of the seas and oceans.
The structure of petrels is maximally adapted to life associated with the marine elements.
In the corpus sheath of petrels there are nostrils through which excess salt is released (after drinking salt water). The wings of tubercles, long and narrow, were created for a soaring flight. The fingers of these birds (three in all) are connected to each other by a swimming membrane, which is very necessary for them to swim.
Petrels are difficult to navigate by land.
The structure of their body contributes to life by the sea, over the sea and even in its thickness – some species of tubercles are capable of diving. But because of the difficulties in traveling overland, the petrels like to nest near the water.
Among the petrels, there are the longest winged birds in the world.
These are albatrosses. The range of their wings can be more than four meters. The special structure of the wing makes it possible for albatrosses not to land for several days.
Cloak of petrel contains only one large egg (white color).
It is interesting that the large representatives of tubercles are the record holders among all birds for the duration of hatching eggs, which is about two months. They feed the chicks for six months. Both the female and the male participate equally in caring for the offspring.
Many nestlings weigh more than their parents by the end of their stay in the nest.
They are fed in the form of gastric fat, an oily liquid that is regurgitated by adults. By itself, this food is very high in calories. It is formed in the glandular stomach of the bird and, in fact, is a reserve of food. With the help of it petrels can not only feed their chicks, but themselves do without food for several days.
Great petrels have an excellent sense of smell.
For birds this is a real rarity. By smell, the albatrosses find scraps from ships and carrion.
Some representatives of trumpet-bones during the wanderings are able to circle the entire globe.
These include the giant petrel, the wandering and royal albatross. Since their way passes through the southern latitudes, and there are strong trade winds blowing, these birds are flown by this wind and fly all over the Earth.
The largest representatives of petrels are albatrosses.
Their weight reaches ten kilograms. A significant part of life these birds spend in a soaring state over the seas and oceans. This is facilitated by unusually long wings – flying in air masses does not require any albatrosses practically no effort.Day after day, they dive somewhere near the water, then climb to a height of 20 meters. And this is part of their life.
Albatrosses are long-livers.
Their life expectancy can reach eighty years (on the average – sixty years). This fact is particularly explained by the almost complete lack of natural enemies in these birds (due to the exceptionally large size of the albatrosses).
Albatrosses arrange marriage games.
At the same time, they make noise, spread their wings, stretch their necks, etc. all this is accompanied by piercing cries. But families, created by albatrosses, are strong – they last a lifetime.
The nesting period of the wandering albatross is eleven months.
It is because of this that the largest representative of albatrosses is not able to breed each year.
Stupid – one of the most widespread in Russia representatives of the order trubopods.
They got their name because of their trustfulness to everything around them. Often during nesting – on land – the fulmar can quite well let in even a person. The flight of these birds can be both soaring and waving. In a calm, windless weather, you can find them resting on the water or flying over its surface.
Stupid keep in the sea one by one.
In packs, they only gather from fishing vessels to pick up scum. In this case, often quarrel, and then you can hear the cackle of these birds.
The routes of autumn and spring migration in many petrels do not coincide.
For example, a thin-billed petrel breeds on the islets that are close to Australia. After the offspring become independent, along the Asian coast it reaches the islands in the Chukchi Sea. In places of nesting is returned by another path, which runs along the coast of America.
The weight of the smallest representatives of the order of petrels is only twenty grams.
These are the birds of the family of pacifiers. They nest in sheltered places: in voids between rocks, in crevices or burrows. In calm weather, the petrimonies can be found flying over the sea waters. Their flight is fluttering. In stormy weather, these unusual birds prefer to keep between high waves – they protect them from strong winds. The diet of petcases includes small marine animals.
“Stormy Storm” is a phenomenon known to the sailors.
This large number of petticoats take seats on the deck of ships (especially often in bad weather). Sailors nicknamed them “fiery”, as these birds fly to the ships to the light of the lights.