Black hole. Myths about black holes

When a person began to study space, he faced a mysterious phenomenon. It was called the “black hole”. It turns out that there is a region in space-time that has a high gravitational attraction. As a result, even objects moving at the speed of light can not escape from it.

Black hole. Myths about black holes

This includes the quanta of the light itself. These areas are indeed black, absorbing everything around and never releasing. We can only guess about their nature and capabilities, and the inadequacy of information about this phenomenon gives rise to some myths.

Albert Einstein stated first about the existence of black holes.

It would seem, to whom, if not to this great scientist, the theoretician of time and space and to declare the existence of black holes? In fact, the first such assumption was made not by him, but by John Mitchell. It happened in 1783, while Einstein created his theory in 1916. However, in those days the theory was unclaimed, the English priest Mitchell simply did not find an application for it. He himself began to think about black holes, accepting Newton’s doctrine of the nature of light. In those days it was believed that it consists of the smallest material particles, photons. Thinking about their displacement, Mitchell realized that it completely depends on the gravitational field of that star, from where the particles begin their journey. The scientist thought about what would happen to photons if the gravitational field was so large that he would not release light at all. It is interesting that it is Mitchell who is considered the founder of seismology in the form we know it. The English priest first suggested. That earthquakes spread like waves on the surface.

Black stars do not absorb space.

Space can be represented as a sheet of rubber. Then the planets will be some balls that put pressure on him. As a result, deformation occurs, and straight lines disappear. So there is gravity, which explains the motion of planets around the stars. With increasing mass, the strain only increases. Additional perturbations of the field appear, which determine the force of attraction. Orbital speeds increase, which implies an ever more rapid movement of bodies around the object. For example, the planet Mercury moves around the Sun at a speed of 48 km / s, and the stars move in space near the black holes 100 times faster! In the case of strong force of attraction, a collision of the satellite and objects of a larger size is possible. And all this mass tends to the center – into a black hole.

All black holes are the same.

Many of us think that this term belongs to objects that are identical in their essence. However, astronomers have come to the conclusion that black holes have several varieties. There are holes rotating, some have an electric charge, and there are those who have both these features. Usually such objects appear by absorbing matter, while a rotating black hole appears when two ordinary holes are merged. Such formations, because of the increased indignation of space, begin to expend much more energy. A charged black hole turns into one huge particle accelerator. A classic example of an object of this class is GRS 1915 + 105. This black hole spins at a speed of 950 rpm, and it is located at a distance of 35 thousand light years from our planet.

Black hole. Myths about black holes

The density of black holes is low.

These objects must be very heavy for their size, in order to generate an attractive force to hold light inside. So, if the Earth’s mass is compressed to the density of a black hole, then a ball with a diameter of 9 millimeters is obtained. A dark object that exceeds its mass by a sun of 4 million times can fit between Mercury and our star. Those black holes that are in the center of galaxies can weigh 10-30 million times the size of the Sun. Such a grandiose mass in a relatively small volume means that the black holes have a huge density and the processes occurring inside are very strong.

Black hole is very quiet.

It’s hard to imagine that a huge dark object, sucking in itself all around, still rustled. In fact, everything that falls into this abyss, moves with constant acceleration. As a result, at the boundary of space-time, which we can still sense because of the finiteness of the speed of light, the particles accelerate to near light speeds. When the matter begins to move up to the limiting speeds, a gurgling sound appears. It is a consequence of the transformation of the energy of motion into sound waves. As a result, the black hole is a very noisy object. In 2003, astronomers who worked at the Chandra Space X-ray Observatory were able to fix sound waves emanating from a massive black hole. But it is located at a distance of 250 million light-years from us, which once again indicates the noisiness of such objects.

Nothing can escape the attraction of black holes.

This statement is correct. After all, when some large or small objects are near a black hole, they are inevitably trapped in its gravitational field. At the same time, it can be like a small particle, a planet, a star, or even a galaxy. However, if the force acts on this object, a large attraction of the black hole, then it will be able to avoid a deadly captivity. It could be, for example, a rocket. But this is possible before the object reaches the event horizon, when the light can still escape from captivity. After this boundary, it will be impossible to break away from the embrace of the all-consuming cosmic monster. After all, to break out of the horizon, you need to develop more speed than the speed of light. And this is impossible even theoretically. So black holes are really black – since light can never get out, we can not look inside this mysterious object. Scientists believe that even a small black hole will tear the involuntary observer to particles even before reaching the event horizon. The force of attraction grows not only with the approach to the center of the planet and the star, but also to the black hole. If you fly to her forward feet, then the force of attraction in the feet will be much higher than in the head, and lead to an instant rupture of the body.

The black hole does not change the time.

The light traverses the horizon of events, but in the end, it penetrates and goes into oblivion. So what happens to the clock if they fall into a black hole and continue their work there? Approaching the horizon of events, they will begin to slow down until they finally stop. Such a stoppage of time is associated with its gravitational deceleration, which explains the theory of relativity of Einstein. In a black hole there is such a great attraction force that it can slow down time. From the point of view of the clock nothing will change, but they will disappear from the field of view, and the light from them will be stretched under the action of a heavy object. Light begins to shift into the red spectrum, the length of its wave will increase. As a result, it will finally become invisible.

Black hole does not produce any energy.

It is known that these objects draw in themselves the entire surrounding mass. Scientists suggest that everything inside shrinks so much that even the space between atoms decreases. As a result, subatomic particles are born, which can fly out. In this they are helped by magnetic field lines that cross the horizon of events. As a result, the release of such particles generates energy, and the method itself is quite effective. The transfer of mass to energy in this case gives a 50 times greater return than in the course of nuclear fusion. The very same black hole appears as a huge reactor.

There is no dependence of the stars and the number of black holes.

Once, Carl Sagan, a famous astrophysicist, said that there are more stars in the universe than grains of sand on the beaches of the whole world. Scientists believe that this number is still finite and is 10 to the power of 22. What do black holes have to do with it? They are their number and determines the number of stars.It turns out that the streams of particles released by black objects expand to some bubbles that can spread through the places where stars form. These areas are in gas clouds, which, when cooled, give rise to luminaries. And particle flows heat gas clouds and prevent new stars from appearing. As a result, there is a constant balance between the activity of black holes and the number of stars in the universe. After all, if there are too many stars in the galaxy, it will be too hot and explosive, life will be difficult to form there. And, on the contrary, a small number of stars also will not help to create life.

Black hole. Myths about black holes

The black hole is made up of a different material than we are.

A number of scientists believe that black holes help in the birth of new elements. And this can be understood, given the splitting of matter into the smallest subatomic particles. They then participate in the formation of stars, which eventually leads to the appearance of elements heavier than helium. This is the carbon and iron needed for the appearance of solid planets. As a result, these elements are included in everything that has a mass, that is, the person himself. It is likely that the true builder of our body is some distant black hole.

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