one of the two main groups of the world of living beings (another group is plants). All animals are heterotrophic organisms, that is, they feed on ready organic compounds and are not able to assimilate inorganic substances. Among unicellular organisms there are forms (for example, euglena), as if transitional in the type of metabolism between animals and plants, combining heterotrophic metabolism with autotrophic.
Active mobility is characteristic of many animals; some of them (for example, squid, dolphins, cheetahs, swifts) have the ability to rapidly move in water, on land or in the air.
Animals are divided into 2 main groups with different levels of organization: protozoa (sarcodic, flagellum, sporoviks, cetosporidia, infusoria) – unicellular organisms; all other types of animals are multicellular.
The cells that make up their body qualitatively (morphologically and physiologically) are differentiated and form various tissues and organs. As the organic world developed, the structure and functions of animals became more and more complicated – motor, digestive, excretory and sexual, respiratory, circulatory systems, as well as the nervous system and sensory organs arose.
Apparatus that provides biochemical constancy of the internal environment has appeared, special complex forms of behavior of animals have developed, for example, marriage dances, games in insects, birds, mammals. About 1.5 million of the existing animal species are known.
16 types are common: simple, sponges, archeocyts (extinct), intestinal cavity, lower worms, mollusks, arthropods, prosopygium, camptozoa, paxony, spongiformes, pogonophores, echinoderms, bristle-maxillary, semi-chordate, chordate (includes subtype of vertebrates). A significant number of these types of animals are found mainly in the seas.
Longest without food, a camel stands.
His record easily beats the male emperor penguin, this penguin can do without food until 130 days.
Camels accumulate water in the humps.
Camels accumulate fat in the humps, not water. The fact that they can go without water for up to 7 days, if they are active, and up to two weeks if they rest, is explained primarily by the fact that camels almost do not sweat (the temperature of the camel’s body should rise to 40 degrees, only then he will start to allocate sweat). In addition, they partially regain the moisture lost with exhalation: at night, when camels are sleeping, their nostrils absorb moisture from the surrounding air. In addition, camels have a very clever cooling system: a dense hair covering on the back, protecting from the sun, and rare hair on the belly, through which heat is released from the body in the shade.
A hen can live without a head.
Indeed, a couple of minutes after the chicken is chopped off, she “lives.” She can run and even try to fly. This is due to the fact that sometimes, losing his head, the chicken retains the stem part of the brain, which is responsible for most reflexes. There is a well-known fact that one strong individual lived without a head for a year and a half. So now it is clear where the expression “chicken-brainless” came from – the head of this “nerf” for life is not needed.
Hyenas are the lions of the lions and eat the remains of food obtained by a lion or a leopard.
However, these animals produce up to 93% of food hunting! Much more often, lions take prey from hyenas.
A person has warts if he touches a frog or a frog.
But this, of course, is not so. Neither toads nor frogs are not to blame for anything. Warts also appear in people who never took frogs in their lives. But why they appear is not exactly clear.
In the illustrations to the famous biblical story, one can see snakes crouching around the trunk.
However, snakes never wrap their trunks. They just lie on them.
The snake hears the flute sounds when the tamer plays on it.
When the snake tamer on the market somewhere in Arabia or India puts a basket on the ground, lifts the lid and starts playing the flute, the snake pushes the head first out of the basket first and then the trunk and starts to wriggle into the rhythm of the flute sounds. But she does not hear any sounds, snakes do not have a hearing at all. If they perceive sound waves, then only as the vibrations of the soil (but not air). You can say that they “feel” sounds. So the snake does not swing in time with the sounds, but in time with the movements of the flute.
Wolves hunt in packs.
The main food of the wolf is mice, squirrels or rabbits. A flock in order to drive such a beast is not needed. Only in winter, when there is an inadequate diet and there are not enough mice, wolves can get into flocks. But the flocks are rarely large – usually this is one family.
The leader of the pack is ubiquitous and invariably portrayed in front of the pack.
However, in reality the weakest animal is always ahead. The leader comes to the fore only if the situation takes a decisive or threatening character.
The bear stands on the hind legs during the attack.
The bear attacks standing on all four paws, biting very strong teeth.
Koala – bears.
The koala bear (Latin – Phascolarctos cinereius) refers to marsupials, not bears. In particular, it is known that marsupials give birth to tiny cubs and mothers wear them for a long time on the body, and bear cubs are quite large animals. Adult koala grow to 50 centimeters. They live in the eastern part of Australia and feed on the kidneys and young shoots of eucalyptus trees. Previously they were hunted because of the charming soft fur almost to the point of total extermination. Now the koalas are included in the Red Book and began to multiply again.
Bulls can not stand red.
In fact, bulls do not really distinguish colors. Therefore, they react to the red color in the same way as green or blue, that is, in any way. Some zoologists believe that teasing a bull would be better than a white cloth. The motley costume, banderillas, raincoats of torrero – all this is more likely to excite the public than the bull. The bull acts irritatingly that someone hurts him painfully, and even waves something under his nose.
Piranhas can eat alive people or animals that have entered the water.
In fact, many people, both Indians and white South Americans bathe and wash clothes in the waters inhabited by piranhas. Biting – biting, but to eat! While there is no blood in the water, these fish will not even pay attention to those present in the water! And during the catching and transportation piranhas sink to the bottom and fall to the side (from the shock they faint).
Sharks attack a person.
A shark attacks a person only if she is irritated or very hungry. At the same time, only about 10-12 species from the existing 350 species of sharks are known that they unprovokedly attack a person. Most are content with smaller food.
If the earthworm is cut, both halves continue to live.
If the worm is cut in half, only its front end continues to live. At the rear, a tail is formed at the dissected site, so that it has two tails. But she has no head, she can not eat, therefore she inevitably dies. If you cut off only a small front part of the worm, it will die, and in the place of the incision a new head grows, and the worm continues to live. The matter is that thus regeneration organs which are located between 9 and 15 segments of the worm (all his body can contain up to 180 segments) will not be damaged.
Spiders are insects.
It is completely wrong to refer spiders to insects. They belong to the class of arachnids, which in many respects differ from insects: they do not have antennal antennae, they have four pairs of legs, and not three, like insects. They have no more in common with insects than with snakes or birds.
Bats are blind.
Traditionally, bats do not see anything. However, this is not the case.They have really very narrow eyes, which are not needed for movement at night. But the eyes of bats enjoy the day. It only seems that in the afternoon the animals are asleep. In fact, during the day, they also move, but so that people do not see them. Bats, by the way, are not only well seen, but also excellently heard. Their hypertrophied ears are capable of perceiving ultrasound at enormous distances.
The ostrich bury its head in the sand in case of danger.
This legend dates back to the time of the Roman Empire, when it was believed that ostriches hide from danger not somewhere, but in the sand. Since then, the metaphorical expression “bury your head in the sand” has gone. I must say that it has become popular not only in Russia, but also in the UK and a number of other countries. In fact, in case of danger, ostriches do what anyone would have done in their place, whose limbs can reach speeds of up to 70 kilometers per hour-run away. How did the famous myth about sand arise? The matter is that the ostriches actually lean towards the sand, but not to bury their head there, but … to eat it. They swallow sand and pebbles so that these elements help to crush the hard food in the stomach.
Birds can freeze cold in winter.
Severe winters under the bushes and trees sometimes find frozen dead birds. But they did not freeze from the cold, they died from lack of fodder. If they had enough food, no frost would be terrible to them.
Animals can predict natural disasters.
There is no reliable evidence that animals have a “sixth sense”. But an excellent sense of smell, hearing and vision, as well as innate instincts developed better than humans, allow animals to quickly identify the danger. In addition, animals will never look out of curiosity for a hurricane or an approaching tsunami. And yet, during the disaster many animals die. So, even if there is a “sixth sense” in animals, it does not bring any particular benefit to them.