Advertising (from Latin reclamo – shouting) – propaganda of ideas, goods and services, designed to increase their attractiveness for consumers. Is, along with PR (PR), the main type of marketing.
The earliest form of advertising was loud cries, which sellers called customers, praising their goods.
There are three main functions of advertising:
– message about the existence of goods, familiarization with its basic properties, parameters, features; information on where and at what time the product is being sold;
– impact on feelings of self-esteem, prestige considerations, views and preferences of consumers;
– a reminder, an incentive to buy.
Depending on what are the general objectives of advertising, two main types are distinguished:
– forms the image of the product and the image of the company;
– stimulates sales, accelerates turnover and helps to find profitable partners.
The effect of advertising lasts for several decades.
It is a common misconception that some long-living brands are “surviving” for so long, as they are constantly being advertised. But the fact is that any product can stay in the market for a long time thanks to quality, and competent advertising only helps to interest new customers. In addition, despite the opinion that the effect of advertising lasts a long time, studies show that it is measured in weeks, sometimes even hours. And although people often memorize slogans and melodies by heart after many years, this does not mean that these memories will turn into purchases.
Repeated advertising will sooner or later lead to success.
In fact, advertising or acting immediately, or does not work never. Companies often persist in showing inefficient advertising. They can do this for various reasons, including lack of testing, fear of the consequences of contraction, and growing pressure from competitors. Also, advertising managers can increase the frequency and duration of its display in order to use the money that has not yet been spent allocated for the advertising campaign so that they will not be reduced by the budget next year. And the managers themselves, unfortunately, do not always know how effective their campaign is.
In order for advertising to have an effect, you need three impressions.
There is an opinion that the optimal number of ad impressions is three, the effectiveness of subsequent ones decreases with each time. From the point of view of G. Krugman, the first viewing only attracts attention, the second one – causes interest in the product, and the third, the last, directly pushes to buy. But, nevertheless, there are many examples, and when one show was quite enough, and when success required more than three hits.
A unique creative solution guarantees success.
Many advertisers and advertising agencies are sure that in order to attract the attention of the audience, advertising should be absolutely unique. There is no scientifically proven relationship between the uniqueness of the message and the sales volumes of the advertised product. A creative fresh idea is more likely to lead to sales growth than simply increasing the number of ad impressions. But the novelty and uniqueness in themselves do not guarantee high results.
Clear logical arguments – the most effective advertising.
Three things in advertising attract attention most: arguments, emotions and approval. Of course, most often consumers make decisions, comparing the characteristics and advantages of competing brands. But despite this, emotions can attract the most. Emotional appeal best penetrates into consciousness; it requires less concentration than other forms, and is usually best remembered.
In our time, advertising is often used, calculated on the subconscious.
Such a delusion is probably caused either by suspicion and distrust of big business, or by a lack of knowledge regarding the term “subconscious”. In any case, this practice is illegal. The subconscious form of advertising was banned as early as in 1974.
Humor in advertising does not allow you to focus on the message.
In fact, competently and qualitatively made funny advertising has a number of advantages: it relaxes the audience, opens their minds for the message, distracts people from counterarguments and finally, just lifts the mood. However, excessive use of humor can really prevent the message from being accepted.
Sex in advertising is a very effective technique.
Quite a controversial statement. Undoubtedly, advertising, filled with sex, will attract attention, but not always positive, and not always specifically to the advertised product. And in this case the desired result will not be achieved.
Thanks to advertising there are different needs.
The statement is false. Advertising itself does not create a need, another thing is that it can be used to meet an already existing need. Take, for example, the widespread iPod players. Of course, before the start of the advertising campaign, people did not know that they wanted portable music until it became available to them. But does this mean that the need has formed under the influence of advertising? Of course not.
Advertising brings profit.
It is widely believed that with such money that is spent on advertising, it brings very high returns, otherwise companies would not spend such amounts on it. In reality, a high level of costs is only a reflection of the continuation of past practices.