Acquired heart disease
, as the name suggests, is acquired by a person after birth as a result of various factors affecting the body. There are several types of acquired heart defects – a valve failure, stenosis, combined heart disease. However, this is not the only classification.
At the initial stages of the disease, the patient may not feel any symptoms of the disease, which can be explained by the huge reserve capacity of the heart, but they are still not unlimited.
Treatment of acquired heart disease is either conservative or surgical. Surgery gives excellent results.
For the speedy recovery and maintenance of one’s health, the patient should as accurately as possible follow all the doctor’s recommendations – this applies to both medical treatment and a certain regime of the day.
Diagnosis of acquired heart disease includes familiarization with patient complaints, conducting an electrocardiogram, radiographs of the heart, ultrasound examination of the heart and laboratory tests.
Preventive measures are important, which, in general, concern the prevention of all cardiovascular diseases. In particular, anyone over the age of forty should regularly make an electrocardiogram and thereby monitor the condition of their heart.
If a person is already sick with heart disease, then he should be supported by the regime that a doctor will recommend for him. This applies to lifestyle, exercise, nutrition. Otherwise, the heart defect can go into the stage of decompensation, when the reserve capacity of the heart is exhausted.
Acquired heart disease is the result of various diseases.
It develops after the birth of a person and in most cases is a consequence of rheumatism. Heart disease occurs immediately after the defeat of the valves or partitions of the heart chambers.
Insufficiency of the valve is one of variants of the acquired heart disease.
Acquired heart defect is often represented by the wrinkling of valve flaps, a change in its shape, as a result of such changes, the hole between the chambers of the heart can not be completely closed (the valves are changed and can not function correctly). This leads to the fact that part of the blood begins to flow in the opposite direction, as a result of which the load on the heart increases. The mass of the heart increases with a vicious one.
Stenosis is another variant of the acquired heart disease.
In this case, heart disease is represented by the defeat of its valves, which is accompanied by the fusion of the valves of the heart. Normal blood flow is disrupted by narrowing the opening that is between the chambers of the heart.
Acquired heart disease can be represented by both valve insufficiency and stenosis.
In this case, they speak of a combined heart disease. Insufficiency of the valve, stenosis and combined heart disease are subdivisions of the classification, which is based on the functional and morphological characteristics of the defeat of the heart valve.
There are several classifications of acquired heart disease.
For etiology (for reasons), this disease is divided into atherosclerotic, rheumatic heart diseases and others. By the number of affected heart valves and their localization, the acquired heart disease is divided into an isolated heart disease (when only one valve is affected), a combined heart disease (when two or more valves of the heart are affected), as well as the aortic, tricuspid, mitral valve, and valve pulmonary trunk. There is a classification based on the severity of the defect. This degree shows how much the intracardiac hemodynamics is disturbed.In this case, the acquired heart disease can be classified as follows: a defect that does not have a noticeable effect on intracardiac hemodynamics, as well as defects that have a moderate and strong influence on intracardiac hemodynamics.
Acquired heart disease may not manifest itself.
Indeed, such a patient is not able to recognize any particular manifestations of the existing disease. This is because the heart has enormous reserve capabilities. These opportunities allow the heart to perform its work in full, and a person, of course, can not notice the disease – the increased work of healthy parts of the heart compensates for the work of the affected department. In this case, the presence of acquired heart disease and its signs can be recognized only by a cardiologist. The cardiologist determines whether a person has a change in the size and tone of the heart, draws attention to the characteristic heart murmurs.
Compensatory abilities of the heart are not limited.
Progression of heart disease is inevitable, which leads to depletion of body reserves. The result can be the development of heart failure. From this moment the heart defect becomes decompensated. The situation can aggravate various diseases (in the first place, of course, we are talking about cardiovascular diseases), as well as physical overloads on the body, susceptibility to stresses and strong emotional distress. However, most often this kind of compensation violation is a reversible process. The cardiologist prescribes the patient a certain course of treatment, which depends on the type of defect and the degree of its severity in the patient.
With acquired heart disease, blood circulation is disrupted.
Insufficient heart valves lead to a reverse blood flow. In this regard, there is an overflow of the chambers of the heart with blood and, as a result, hypertrophy of the muscular wall of the chambers. The consequence of the acquired heart disease is a decrease in the minute and stroke volumes of the blood. This is due to the narrowing of intracardiac orifices. If the myocardium (heart muscle) for a long time is in a state of overexertion, the direct consequence of this is a weakening of the contractile force of the heart muscle and the development of heart failure.
Diagnosis of acquired heart disease is based on many studies.
If a cardiologist suspects a patient of having a heart defect in his patient, then in order to diagnose this disease the specialist will have to conduct a multifaceted examination. First, the initial stage of diagnosis is based on the patient’s questionnaire, which includes information about rheumatism (whether the patient has this disease or not), as well as about the patient’s well-being under physical stress on the body and at rest. Secondly, the specialist determines the boundaries of the heart to confirm or disprove hypertrophy, and also hears heart tones and noises. The third stage of diagnostics is an electrocardiogram (it is possible to conduct a daily electrocardiogram). If there is a need for a trial with exercise, then this procedure should be performed strictly under the supervision of the resuscitator. A necessary step in the diagnosis of acquired heart disease is the X-ray of the heart, which is performed in four projections. Importance is attached to the evaluation of ultrasound findings of the heart, as well as laboratory studies. This kind of examination of a patient with an already diagnosed heart disease should take place every year.
With the acquired heart disease, the regime of life of the patient is of great importance.
This is especially true for the period of decompensation. The mode of life should be gentle. However, this does not mean that the patient should completely abandon any physical activity. The latter is necessary only in extremely severe cases of heart disease.In addition, it is absolutely necessary to support the diet and fulfill all the recommendations of the doctor. As for the diet, it can be very strict, but this is not an excuse for refusing it. With acquired heart disease, even surgical treatment is possible. Surgery is necessary in cases where conservative treatment has not yielded positive results. In any case, surgical treatment should not be afraid, because it gives very good results. The prognosis is favorable, such treatment relieves the patient not only from the negative consequences of the disease, but also from the disease itself. Treatment is mandatory and directed to physical rehabilitation of patients who underwent surgery.
Surgical treatment of acquired heart disease is the only radical way to treat this disease.
It includes surgical correction of valvular lesions. However, surgical intervention is not always possible. Contraindications to surgical treatment may be later diagnosis of acquired heart disease, a serious condition of patients, refusal of surgery and other contraindications. In preparation for surgical treatment, the importance of medication preparation for surgery. In addition, treatment of acquired heart disease must necessarily include treatment of the disease that led to it – in most cases, it is rheumatism.
Prevention of this disease is very important in order to prevent the development of heart disease.
Actually, the prevention of heart disease coincides with the prevention of diseases that can lead to its development. If the heart disease has already developed, then it is important to prevent the state of decompensation, in connection with this, a certain mode of life is appointed, which will contribute to the patient’s normal health. This regime necessarily includes a set of appropriate exercises, which are selected individually by the attending physician, as well as the maximum possible load. The purpose of these exercises is to improve the function of the heart. It is important to control not only the doctor, but also the patient himself, as he must understand that any stress leading to unpleasant sensations is not useful. To such unpleasant sensations include the strengthened palpitation, pains in heart, a dyspnea or short wind, etc. In addition, any possible fatigue, visiting a bath, taking hot baths, lack of proper rest, etc., are harmful to the patient. All of the above can cause a state of decompensation and lead to a deterioration in the patient’s well-being. Naturally, the state of decompensation can be facilitated by smoking and drinking alcohol. As for nutrition, it should be characterized as moderate and regular. At night there is not recommended – the last meal should be at least three to four hours before bedtime. The patient must constantly monitor his body, not allow fullness. This is due to the fact that the accumulation of excessive amounts of fat leads to an increase in the load on the heart and the difficulty of circulation. It is worth noting and the fact that preventive measures, one hundred percent guaranteeing protection from heart disease, do not exist; However, timely recognition of malfunctions in the functioning of the cardiovascular system is quite possible. Any person over the age of forty must at least annually undergo an electrocardiogram (ECG). This applies to those people who feel completely healthy.